Arado SD II

Arado SD II

Arado SD II

The Arado SD II was a single-seat sesquiplane fighter produced alongside the similar SD III and that became the basis for the Arado Ar 64.

The SD II looked very similar to the SD I, and like the earlier aircraft had a welded steel fuselage, wooden wings and was covered with a mix of plywood and fabric. It was a rather larger aircraft than the SD I (nearly six feet wider and over two feet longer), and also much heavier, with nearly twice the empty weight and a 50% increase in maximum take-off weight. As a result, despite the increase in engine power from 425hp on the SD I to 530hp on the SD II, the new aircraft was significantly slower than the SD I.

The SD II was powered by a licence-built Jupiter VI radial engine with reduction gearing and had a three-blade propeller. One prototype was built, making its maiden flight in 1929. The SD III was developed at the same time, and differed mainly in the nature of its engine. After these two prototypes work moved onto the Arado Ar 64.

Engine: Gnome-Rhône Jupiter VI radial engine
Power: 530hp
Crew: 1
Wing span: 32ft 5 3/4in
Length: 24ft 3 3/4in
Empty Weight: 3,186lb
Maximum take-off Weight: 3,902lb
Max Speed: 146mph at 16,405ft


Die Arado SD I war das erste Jagdflugzeugmodell, das bei der Arado Handelsgesellschaft in Warnemünde gebaut wurde. Konstrukteur war Walter Rethel. Es flossen viele Erfahrungen seiner vorherigen Arbeit bei Fokker ein. Das sehr kompakte Modell war in Gemischtbauweise ausgeführt. Ungewöhnlich war der Verzicht auf Spanndrähte. Die SD I hatte einen 425 PS leistenden luftgekühlten 9-Zylinder-Sternmotor Bristol Jupiter, der von Gnôme et Rhône in Lizenz hergestellt wurde. Die Bewaffnung bestand aus zwei synchronisierten 7,92-mm-Maschinengewehren MG 08/15. Der Erstflug des ersten von zwei gebauten Prototypen fand am 11. Oktober 1927 statt. Es zeigten sich sehr schlechte Langsamflugeigenschaften. Wegen der unzureichend erscheinenden Struktur forderte das Reichswehrministerium einen Neuentwurf, der zur SD II führte.

Die Neukonstruktion wurde ebenfalls von Walter Rethel durchgeführt. Die SD II war größer und schwerer als die SD I. Die deutlich konservativere Auslegung hatte verspannte Tragflächen. Der einzige Prototyp wurde 1929 als Wettbewerber zur Heinkel HD 37 fertiggestellt. Als Antrieb diente ein von Siemens & Halske hergestellter 530 PS starker 9-Zylinder-Sternmotor Jupiter VI mit Untersetzungsgetriebe und einem großen 3-Blatt-Propeller. Die Bewaffnung bestand wieder aus zwei synchronisierten 7,92-mm-08/15-Maschinengewehren. Trotz schwieriger Handhabung bildete die SD II die Basis für die spätere Ar 64.

Die SD III entstand aus dem Flugwerk des zweiten Prototyps der SD II ausgerüstet war sie mit einem von Siemens & Halske hergestellten Jupiter VI mit 510 PS und kleinerem direkt angetriebenen 2-Blatt-Propeller. Die vorderen Konturen waren überarbeitet und aufgrund des kleineren Propellers konnte ein niedrigeres Fahrwerk installiert werden. Die Bewaffnung entsprach der bereits in der SD II eingebauten.

Die Ar 64a wurde direkt von der SD II und SD III abgeleitet, jedoch mit einer hinsichtlich der Aerodynamik deutlich verbesserten Rumpfkonstruktion, insbesondere durch den weiter nach hinten versetzten und verkleideten Jupiter-VI-Motor. Die Ar 64a hatte einen Vierblatt-Holzpropeller. Ausgelöst wurde die Entwicklung durch eine Anforderung des Reichswehrministerium nach einem Nachfolger für die in Lipezk verwendeten Fokker D.XIII. Der Erstflug der Ar 64a fand im Frühjahr 1929 statt.

Die nächsten beiden Prototypen, genannt Ar 64b, waren mit einem wassergekühlten V12-Zylinder-Motor BMW VI 6,3 mit einer Leistung von 640 PS ausgerüstet. Sie wurden 1931 in Lipezk getestet.

Die Ar 64c entsprach mit kleineren strukturellen Änderungen der Ar 64a. Die Serienproduktion dieser Version begann parallel zur Ar 64d und Ar 64e. Diese unterschieden sich von der Ar 64c durch ein überarbeitetes Leitwerk und untereinander im Wesentlichen durch das Getriebe (d mit, e ohne) und den Propeller (d mit 4-Blatt-, e mit 2-Blatt-Propeller).

Zwischen 1931 und 1934 wurden 30 Ar 64 gebaut, davon zwölf bei Focke-Wulf. Am 1. April 1933 waren sechs Ar 64d und fünf Ar 64e vorhanden. Bis Ende 1934 wurden 19 Ar 64 ausgeliefert. Diese gingen zuerst an die Jagdfliegerschule Schleißheim und anschließend an die Jagdstaffeln der Gruppe Döberitz. Am 1. Juli 1936 waren noch 21 Ar 64 bei der Luftwaffe vorhanden. Der Nachfolger wurde die Arado Ar 65.


Arado Projekt II

The Arado Ar Projekt II was a German jet night fighter project of Arado Flugzeugwerke, which was undertaken in March 1945.

Arado Ar Projekt II
Role Night fighter project
National origin Germany
Manufacturer Arado Flugzeugwerke
Number built Not produced

The designs marked that the aircraft would contain two crew, and had ejector seats. It had 35 degree swept wings, and two HeS 011 or BMW 003-A engines underneath. It also had four nose-mounted MK108 cannons. [1]

This design was based on the successful Ar 234 and was therefore ready for serial production in the shortest possible time, however could not start due to the end of the war. [2]

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B Model Blitz Bomber

The Ar 234B Schnellbomber, or “fast bomber” introduced a widened fuselage that permitted conventional landing gear, albeit with a very narrow track. The B model, first flown in June 1944, was slightly heavier than reconnaissance versions at 21,720 pounds (9850 kilograms) and had two 20 mm fixed, rearward-firing MG 151 cannons in a remotely controlled tail position operated by the pilot using a periscope. There exists no record of anyone ever hitting anything with these guns, and many pilots removed them to save weight.

This head-on view of an Ar 234B demonstrates the high-flotation tires on the narrow-track landing gear, greenhouse canopy, periscopic sight/rear-view mirror projecting from the top of the canopy, and the troublesome Junkers Jumo 004 engines.

Two different configurations for a four-engined version of the Ar 234 were built and flown. The Ar 234 V8 had four BMW 109-003A-1 engines, each of 1,760 pounds static thrust, podded together two to a side and the Ar 234 V6 housed the four engines in separate nacelles. The Ar 234 V8 with podded engines was chosen for production as the Ar 234C, the added engines improving top speed to 529 mph at 20,000 feet.

The Ar 234C was the final production version, and also introduced an improved pressurized cockpit and larger main wheels. A “crescent-wing” Ar 234 – signaling the future Handley Page Victor – was under construction but never flown. Ultimately only 19 Ar 234Cs are believed to have been built, with none reaching combat units.

Kriessmann was assigned to ferry Ar 234s from the factory “to different places where they installed optical equipment and bombing equipment. I flew the first one on Dec. 12, 1944, from Hamburg to Kampfgeschwader 76 and the last on May 1, 1945.” KG 76 was a German group that flew the final Ar 234 sortie of the war against advancing Red Army troops near Berlin.

Plans existed for the manufacture of 2,500 Ar 234 Blitz bombers, but they were cut short by the war’s end. Total production was 224 examples of all versions.

Today, the only surviving aircraft in this series is an Ar 234B-2 bomber on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum at Dulles, Va.


Variants [ edit | edit source ]

Ar 68V1 Prototype, powered by a 492 kW (660 hp) BMW VI engine. First flight in 1933. Ar 68a First prototype. Ar 68b Second prototype. Ar 68c Third prototype. Ar 68d Fourth prototype. Ar 68 V4 The fourth prototype (Ar 68d) re-designated after the RLM(Reichs Luftfahrtministerium) introduced the standardised Versuchs (research) number system. Ar 68e Fifth prototype. Ar 68 V5 The fourth prototype (Ar 68e) re-designated after the RLM(Reichs Luftfahrtministerium) introduced the standardised Versuchs (research) number system. Ar 68E First type to enter Luftwaffe service, powered by a 455 kW (610 hp) Junkers Jumo 210. Ar 68F Interim production, powered by a 500 kW (670 hp) BMW VI, awaiting supply of Jumo 210 engines. Ar 68G Abortive attempt to fit a supercharged BMW VI (500 kW+/670 hp+). Ar 68H Only a single prototype was built, powered by a 634 kW (850 hp) supercharged BMW 132Da nine-cylinder air-cooled radial. It was also the first Arado fighter to have an enclosed cockpit.


Arado NJ-1 Nacht Jager (Night Hunter)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 10/23/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Project NJ-1 "Nacht Jager 1" ("Night Hunter 1") was put forth by the Arado concern of Germany during the latter stages of World War 2 to fulfill a Luftwaffe requirement for a new jet-powered night fighter. The aircraft was to be a multi-crew aircraft powered by two engines for the fast speeds required and promote strong maneuverability when engaging incoming enemy forces. The Luftwaffe need was also met by competing designs from Blohm and Voss, Dornier, Focke-Wulf and Gotha. Despite the interest, the requirement was eventually cancelled due to the declining war situation for Germany and, of the designs submitted, only the Blohm and Voss aircraft was furthered through a prototype contract prior to war's end, this becoming the Bv P.215.

As a night fighter, the NJ-1 had to fulfill various qualities for the Luftwaffe - speed, control, armament and reaction. Speed would be managed by its selection of jet propulsion which still proved an infant technology this late in the war. Control was to be provided through ailerons, elevators and split flaps found about the wing structures as well as small vertical fins. Armament followed the German belief that autocannons were the answer when attempting to bring down the large bombers of the Allies. Reaction meant that the aircraft would be able to respond quickly to incoming formations of Allied bombers, able to go airborne in short order and reach the necessary altitude before engaging through armament and the element of surprise. Direction-finding would be radios and tracking by way of radar. As such, the workload would be spread across the three-man crew.

Arado engineers elected for a swept wing, tailless design incorporated side-by-side cockpit seating for its three crew (it is assumed only two would be side-by-side with the third in a rear, rear-facing cockpit to handle the defensive weaponry). The twin engine arrangement was also a side-by-side installment and these fitted under the aft portion of the aircraft's fuselage. Small vertical tail fins were added at each trailing edge for control. The cockpit canopy was lightly framed for good vision and the aircraft would have been one of greater dimensions than the Luftwaffe anticipated to be able to house the required large-caliber armament and side-by-side seating for the crew. The undercarriage was to be of a tricycle arrangement with two main legs and a nose leg, all single-wheeled and retractable. The powerplant of choice was 2 x HeS 011 series turbines developing 2,865lbs of thrust each. Other integral systems included radio, search radar, a pressurized cockpit for high-altitude flying and ejection seats for crew survival.

As an offensive-minded night hunter, the NJ-1's armament was centered around cannons. Proposed armament was 2 x 30mm MK 108 cannons in the nose along with 2 x 30mm MK 108 obliquely-mounted (upward-firing) in the fuselage and 2 x 30mm MK 108 cannons in the tail facing rear as a defensive measure. The oblique cannons were of note, allowing the aircraft to fly up under an enemy bomber and fire upon its most vulnerable position. The aircraft was also slated to carry 2 x 1,100lb bombs for night bombing sorties.

Despite not officially selected, the NJ-1 submission was looked over by Luftwaffe officials and found wanting in several key areas: Authorities felt that the engines would not be properly aspirated (leading to lower thrust output than anticipated) being mounted so far aft in the design and with so short a ductwork length for the intake. Additionally, the vertical control surfaces were deemed too small for proper controlling of such a large aircraft.

The design work for the NJ-1 eventually fell to the advancing Soviet forces when the Arado works came under their control outside of Berlin during March of 1945. No physical mockups or prototypes of the night fighter were ever completed, the NJ-1 existing only in its presented paper form.

From these plans, dimensions included a wingspan over 60.4 feet and a length near 43 feet. Estimated empty weight was 22,490lbs with a Maximum Take-Off Weight of 29,100lbs. Performance from the twin engine output was estimated with a cruising speed of approximately 330 miles per hour and a maximum overall speed of 505 miles per hour. Its service ceiling was envisioned to be near 44,625 feet with a rate-of-climb of about 38 feet per minute reported. Range was an optimistic 850 miles.


RB67 Pro-SD

The RB67 Pro-SD or Professional SD as written on the body was released in 1990. It supports L series lenses along with 6×8 backs. These lenses require a slightly larger lens mount diameter, it is now 61mm instead of 54mm. Because the mount is a larger size an adapter is necessary in order to mount original and C lenses. K/L and L lenses do not require an adapter. The focusing distance scale has been changed and now has an additional listing for a 140mm lens. The Pro-SD roll film back is nearly the same functions as the Pro-S back, but the dark slide can be inserted on the left or right side of the back.


SUCCESS WITH ALPHA LIPID AND SD II (NEW IMAGE)


by Lim Wey Wen
27 Januari 2012

KUALA LUMPUR: Cancer of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer) has overtaken cervical cancer as the second most common cancer among Malaysian women.

UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC) oncology department head, Assoc Prof Datuk Dr Fuad Ismail said the cancer, which is the most common type among Malaysian men, had intensified with the women in the past few years.

"In 2003, the most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed by cervical cancer and colorectal cancer," said Dr Fuad after the launch of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Asia CME Partner Centre Colorectal Cancer Programme at UKMMC yesterday.


Colorectal Cancer The Second

The pattern changed in 2007, when colorectal cancer was recorded as the second most common cancer among women.

"This may be due to the increase of the number of women diagnosed with colon cancer and the decrease of cervical cancer incidence among women," said Dr Fuad, adding that more women were now educated on cervical cancer prevention and its screening methods.

He noted that of the estimated 40,000 cancer cases diagnosed every year, about 4,000 of them were colorectal cancer.

"Men and women are just as likely to get it," said Dr Fuad, who also agreed that colorectal cancer used to be thought of being 'a men's disease'.

Dr Luqman Mazlan, a surgeon at the UKMMC, who was also present at the event, said surgeons at the medical centre operated on 3 to 4 colorectal cancer patients a week.

"We don't routinely screen the general population for colorectal cancer unless a person has a very strong family history of it," said Dr Luqman.

However, he said those who experienced changes in their bowel habits, unexplained weight loss and find blood in their faeces should check for the cancer.

It is not yet clear what causes colorectal cancer but medical website Mayoclinic.com offers the following advice to reduce the risk of developing the disease:

"Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, drink alcohol in moderation, stop smoking, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight".


Role(s)

Year introduced

Affiliation

The Venator-class Star Destroyer, also known as a Republic attack cruiser or Jedi Cruiser, was a line of wedge-shaped Star Destroyers in service with the Galactic Republic Navy during the Clone Wars. The backbone of the Galactic Republic's naval forces, the Venator was a versatile capital ship capable of serving as a troop carrier, a cargo transport, and a warship for ship-to-ship combat. Its front section contained a large flight deck and hangars to accommodate a complement of Republic starfighters and gunships.

The Republic deployed the Venator-class Star Destroyers across the galaxy during the conflict with the Confederacy of Independent Systems. Often utilized as flagships by the Jedi Generals of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Venator-class was closely associated with the Jedi Order as a result. Venators served in several major engagements of the Clone Wars, including the Battle of Christophsis, the Battle of Sullust, and the Battle of Coruscant.

Following Order 66 and the rise of the Galactic Empire, Venator-class Star Destroyers remained in service to the Imperial Navy during the early days of the Imperial Era. Ultimately, though, the Venator-class was decommissioned and replaced by the Imperial-class Star Destroyer, a larger warship that was modeled on its Republic predecessor.


History

When the keel of NORTH CAROLINA was laid in October of 1937 at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, she was the first battleship to be constructed in sixteen years. She became the first of ten fast battleships to join American fleet in World War II. NORTH CAROLINA (BB 55) and her sister ship, WASHINGTON (BB 56), comprised the NORTH CAROLINA Class. Following them were the SOUTH DAKOTA Class – SOUTH DAKOTA (BB 57), INDIANA (BB 58), MASSACHUSETTS (BB 59), and ALABAMA (BB 60) – and the IOWA Class – IOWA (BB 61), NEW JERSEY (BB 62), MISSOURI (BB 63), and WISCONSIN (BB 64).

At the time of her commissioning on 9 April 1941, she was considered the world’s greatest sea weapon. Armed with nine 16-inch/45 caliber guns in three turrets and twenty 5-inch/38 caliber guns in ten twin mounts, NORTH CAROLINA proved a formidable weapons platform. Her wartime complement consisted of 144 commissioned officers and 2,195 enlisted men, including 86 Marines.

During World War II, NORTH CAROLINA participated in every major naval offensive in the Pacific area of operations and earned 15 battle stars.

In the Battle of the Eastern Solomons in August of 1942, the Battleship’s anti-aircraft barrage helped save the carrier ENTERPRISE, thereby establishing the primary role of the fast battleship as protector of aircraft carriers. One of her Kingfisher pilots performed heroically during the strike on Truk when she rescued ten downed Navy aviators on 30 April 1944. In all, NORTH CAROLINA carried out nine shore bombardments, sank an enemy troopship, destroyed at least 24 enemy aircraft, and assisted in shooting down many more.

Her anti-aircraft guns helped halt or frustrate scores of attacks on aircraft carriers. She steamed over 300,000 miles. Although Japanese radio announcements claimed six times that NORTH CAROLINA had been sunk, she survived many close calls and near misses with one hit when a Japanese torpedo slammed into the Battleship’s hull on 15 September 1942. A quick response on the part of the crew allowed the mighty ship to keep up with the fleet. By war’s end, the Ship lost only ten men in action and had 67 wounded.

After serving as a training vessel for midshipmen, NORTH CAROLINA was decommissioned 27 June 1947 and placed in the Inactive Reserve Fleet in Bayonne, New Jersey, for the next 14 years. In 1958 the announcement of her impending scrapping led to a statewide campaign by citizens of North Carolina to save the ship from the scrappers torches and bring her back to her home state. The Save Our Ship (SOS) campaign was successful and the Battleship arrived in her current berth on 2 October 1961. She was dedicated on 29 April 1962 as the State’s memorial to its World War II veterans and the 11,000 North Carolinians who died during the war.

Here is a fun trivia question sheet on the history of the Battleship. See how many you can answer and then come back for the answers. Or take our online quiz here:

Vital Statistics

Hull Number:
BB 55

Keel Laid:
October 27, 1937

Launched:
June 13, 1940

Commissioned:
April 9, 1941

Decommissioned:
June 27, 1947

Length:
728' ⅝" long

Extreme Beam:
108 feet 3 7/8 inches wide

Mean Draught:
31 feet 7 inches normal, 35 feet 6 inches maximum

Displacement:
36,600 tons standard, 44,800 tons full load

Complement:
2,339 (144 officers and 2,200 enlisted)

Speed:
28 knots

Armament:
9: 16-inch/45 caliber guns
20: 5-inch/38 caliber guns
60: 40mm/56 caliber guns
48: 20mm/70 caliber guns

Address // 1 Battleship Road, Wilmington, NC 28401
Phone // 910-399-9100

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