Picture of Dornier Do 17Z

Picture of Dornier Do 17Z

Picture of Dornier Do 17Z

Picture of the Dornier Do 17Z. Photos courtesy of the website of Professor Lluís Belanche Muñoz: http://www.lsi.upc.es/~belanche/personal/do-17.html


Cutaway Of A Dornier Do 17z

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


History

Development

The Do-17 began life as a civil transport, built in response to a 1933 Deutsche Lufthansa (DLH) requirement for a high speed mail-plane, which was also capable of carrying six passengers. The first of three prototypes, the Do-17 V1, made its first flight in the autumn of 1934, and was joined by the end of the year by the second (Do-17 V2) and third (Do-17 V3) prototypes. All three, powered by BMW VI engines, were handed over to DLH in early 1935, where evaluation by the company revealed that the type was impractical for passenger use, as the slim fuselage resulted in the passenger compartments being cramped and difficult to get in and out of. [N 1]

Following the decision to abandon development of the Do-17 as a passenger transport, the three prototypes were placed in a hanger at Lowenthal, where they were discovered by Flugkaptain Untucht, a former Dornier employee who later served as star pilot of DLH, before joining the staff at RLM to supervise the commercial transport development department, Untchut decided to fly one of the prototypes and, praising the type's flying characteristics, stated that with additional keel surface, the Do-17 would make an excellent high speed bomber. This led the RLM to order a number of further prototypes for bomber evaluation, starting with the Do-17V4, which retained the engines of the transport prototypes, but had the single fin and rudder replaced with end-plate fins and rudders. Α]

This aircraft was used for the military test flight programme which started in the summer of 1935, together with the Hispano Suiza 12ybrs powered Do 17V5 and BMW VI powered D0 17 V6. These were followed by the D0 17V7, which featured a fairing above the fuselage for a single machine gun, together with a glazed nose cap for the bomb aimer. This led to the Do 17V8, which was retained by the company as a development aircraft, and the Do 17V9, which served as the prototype of the first production model, the Do 17E-1, which featured extra glazing and refinements to the fuselage and tail. ΐ]

Operational Service

The Do 17E-1 first became available in early 1937, initially equipping I./KG 153 and I./KG 155. Later that year the type was allocated to II./KG 153, III./KG 153, II./KG 155 and III./KG 155, the last of these eventually being redesignated KG 158. The Do-17 also equipped KG 252 and KG 255. ΐ]

Variants

The first model in the Dornier Do 17 series was the Dornier Do 17E-1. This model had dual BMW Bramo Engines capable of propelling the bomber at a maximum speed of up to 426.4 km/h. Armament consisted of two 7.9mm MGs mounted in defensive positions and up to 997 kg of ordnance. 

The type was later developed into the similar Dornier Do 215. Β]


Dornier Do 17

Dornier Do 17, đôi khi còn gọi là Fliegender Bleistift (tiếng Đức: "bút chì bay"), là một loại máy bay ném bom hạng nhẹ của Đức trong Chiến tranh thế giới II, do công ty của Claudius Dornier là Dornier Flugzeugwerke chế tạo. Nó được thiết kế làm một Schnellbomber ("máy bay ném bom nhanh"), về lý thuyết đây là một máy bay ném bom hạng nhẹ có thể bay nhanh hơn các máy bay tiêm kích bảo vệ mục tiêu bị ném bom.

Do 17
KiểuNém bom hạng nhẹ/Tiêm kích bay đêm/Trinh sát
Hãng sản xuấtDornier Flugzeugwerke
Chuyến bay đầu tiên23 tháng 11-1934 [1]
Được giới thiệu1937
Ngừng hoạt động1952 (Không quân Phần Lan) [2]
Khách hàng chính Luftwaffe
Không quân Phần Lan
Số lượng sản xuất2.139 [3]
Phiên bản khácDornier Do 215


Dornier Do 17

The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift (“flying pencil”), is a light bomber of Nazi Germany during World War II. It was produced by Claudius Dornier’s company, Dornier Flugzeugwerke. The aircraft was designed as a Schnellbomber (“fast bomber”), a light bomber which, in theory, would be so fast that it could outrun defending fighter aircraft.

The Dornier was designed with two engines mounted on a “shoulder wing” structure and possessed a twin tail fin configuration. The type was popular among its crews due to its handling, especially at low altitude, which made the Do 17 harder to hit than other German bombers.

Designed in the early 1930s, it was one of the three main Luftwaffe bomber types used in the first three years of the war. The Do 17 made its combat debut in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, operating in the Condor Legion in various roles. Along with the Heinkel He 111 it was the main bomber type of the German air arm in 1939–1940. The Dornier was used throughout the early war, and saw action in significant numbers in every major campaign theatre as a front line aircraft until the end of 1941, when its effectiveness and usage was curtailed as its bomb load and range were limited.

Production of the Dornier ended in mid-1940, in favour of the newer and more powerful Junkers Ju 88. The successor of the Do 17 was the much more powerful Dornier Do 217, which started to appear in strength in 1942. Even so, the Do 17 continued service in the Luftwaffe in various roles until the end of the war, as a glider tug, research and trainer aircraft. A considerable number of surviving examples were sent to other Axis nations as well as countries like Finland. Few Dornier Do 17s survived the war and the last was scrapped in Finland in 1952.

On 3 September 2010, the Royal Air Force Museum London announced the discovery of a Henschel-built Dornier Do 17Z buried in the Goodwin Sands off the coast of Kent, England. On 10 June 2013, the salvage team raised the airframe from the seabed.


Contents

Early designs and marine plans Edit

At the beginning of 1938, Dornier issued manufacturing specification No. 1323, recognising the need for a twin-engine bomber or long-range reconnaissance aircraft powered by Daimler-Benz DB 601B engines. [3] In February 1938 the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM – Air Ministry) authorized a testing program. [4] Dornier worked on a version of the Do 17M with the all round vision cockpit of the Do 17Z and a fuselage having a large bomb bay capable of holding a maximum of two 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) and ten 50 kilograms (110 lb) bombs. For reconnaissance an Rb 50/30 movie camera was fitted ahead of the front spar of the wing, and an Rb 20/30 was mounted in the second bomb bay. [5] Jettisonable fuel tanks were carried in the forward bomb bay. For smoke-laying, the aircraft could be fitted with two Type S200 smoke generators. Dornier also envisaged the Do 217 as a naval dive bomber, in which case it was to be fitted with twin floats. In April and May 1938, the Do 217 WV1 and WV2 prototypes were produced. [3] [6]

The wing span was to be slightly larger than the Dornier Do 17 by one metre. Its overall span was now 19 metres (62 ft 4 in). Under the wing a retractable diving air brake was to be installed. To power the aircraft the Dornier office at Manzell had favoured two DB 601B engines which could generate 1175 PS (1159 hp, 864 kW) for take off. The Jumo 211, Bramo 329 and BMW 139 (forerunner to the BMW 801) were also considered. Whichever of the power plants was selected, the RLM expected the aircraft to achieve a maximum speed of 520 kilometres per hour (280 kn) and have a weight of 10,200 kilograms (22,500 lb) fully loaded. On 5 June 1938 Dornier's overview of its design submitted to the Technical Bureau (Technisches Amt) highlighted some structural differences with the Do 17. In particular, the proposed increase in the bomb load to 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb) had to have been a vital factor in the design's acceptance. The fuselage was to be not only bigger but also structurally stronger. [7]

The RLM also had other requirements for Dornier to fill. Since 1933 Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine had pressed for the formation of a Naval Air Arm. In January 1938 the Naval Air Arm Inspectorate of the Luftwaffe presented its requirements for a multi-role twin-engined all-metal aircraft that could also conduct maritime operations. On 5 February 1938 it was agreed with the General Staff. The ineffectiveness of horizontal bombing of ship targets had already been noted. At the Erprobungsstelle Travemünde military aviation test centre at Greifswald, training units together with a few naval air units practiced bombing the ship Zähringen with concrete bombs. The results were a two percent hit rate. Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers repeated the assault with a 40% hit rate. The superior accuracy of dive bombing was clearly demonstrated. The Luftwaffe also wanted a machine that could operate as a fighter aircraft to combat enemy aircraft. Essentially they wanted a "sea Stuka" (Junkers Ju 87). [8] The aircraft was to have floats and a range of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) and a maximum speed of 400 kilometres per hour (220 kn). [9]

Dornier set about designing a Dornier floatplane. For hitting targets in the air and sea surface, four automatic weapons would be fitted in the nose. The armament would consist of two MG 17 machine guns (500 rounds of ammunition each) and two MG 204 (aka Lb 204) 20mm autocannon (200 rounds of ammunition) as part of the Dornier Do P.85 project (in German sources these were all classified as "machine guns", since the Luftwaffe considered anything 20mm or lower a "machine gun", rather than a cannon like Western nations, hence the "MG" designation). [9] Heavy weapons consisted of one 500 kg or two 250 kg bombs for assaulting enemy warships. Dornier faced competition from Heinkel and Junkers who were developing the Junkers Ju 88 and Heinkel He 115. [9] Instead of MG 204s, MG 151 or MG FF was installed instead. Defensive armament was to consist of MG 15s to cover the aft approach. In addition the pay load could be modified to one 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) and eight 50 kilograms (110 lb) bombs or even two SC 500 bombs. The floats had a volume of 8,100 litres (1,800 imp gal) and were broken into compartments for safety reasons. Each float was to contain a fuel tank with a capacity of 500 litres (110 imp gal). The tail was to consist of the same twin stabilizer configuration as the Do 217, although a single fin was planned. [10]

For dive bombing capability a dive brake was installed underneath the wing, like the Ju 88. The power plants were to reflect the speed requirements. It was envisaged as having two DB 601G engines, generating 1,300 horsepower (970 kW), or two Jumo 211s. The fuel tanks to supply the power plant were located in the wing and fuselage which had a capacity for 2,000 litres (440 imp gal) of aviation fuel and 190 litres (42 imp gal) of oil. At full weight the Dornier would reach 360 kilometres per hour (190 kn) and its effective range was to be expected to be 1,880 kilometres (1,170 mi). Its optimum range at an average cruising speed of 270 kilometres per hour (150 kn) at an altitude of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft), was 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi). The specifications were dated 8 March 1938. [10] The Do 217 lost out in the naval aircraft race to the Ju 88 and Blohm & Voss Ha 140, as the Luftwaffe favoured these designs owing to the Do 217 failing to live up to the specifications given. [10] Although specifically ordered to cease development of the naval version of the Do 217, [11] Dornier unofficially pursued the project and produced the Do 217W V1 and W V2 prototypes. [12]

By the summer, 1940 the Luftwaffe had been using the Dornier Do 18, Heinkel He 115, Heinkel He 59, Heinkel He 111 and Junkers Ju 88 in maritime operations in the Baltic. At this point, the Ju 88 and He 111 equipped units were ordered to cease providing maritime support en masse. Instead, the Luftwaffe returned to the idea of the Do 217 and its floatplane version as a specialized naval attack aircraft. At the same time more plans were in place to produce extremely long-range aircraft (probably for operations deep in the Soviet Union). It is possible that the data sheet which Dornier gave the designation Do 217G was a part of that project. Unlike the Sea Stuka, a floatplane, the G was to carry an MG 151 mounted in the nose and three MG 15s fitted for defence. The G was expected to reach 14,900 kilograms (32,800 lb). It was still designed for a crew of four and equipped with sprung floats which would allow the aircraft to land in rough open seas. The G could also carry the entire variation of the E-1 bomb load it could carry a load twice that of the Do P.85 aircraft. However, the Do 217 E-1s performance was favoured. Nevertheless, the Gs design features figured and influenced the E-4 which went into production as the aircraft that was envisaged to be the backbone of the Luftwaffe's bomber fleet in the Battle of the Atlantic. [12]

Focus on a heavy bomber Edit

At the end of August 1938 arguments against the floatplane version arose in favour of a land based aircraft to serve as a torpedo bomber in the Battle of the Atlantic, with its more numerous potential applications, were accepted. At the beginning of January 1939 the RLM stopped all work on the marine dive bomber version, as its estimated performance was not adequate. [3] On 8 July 1939 Dornier issued a manufacturing specification for a glide bomb-deploying version for full maritime use. It was to be equipped with unitized BMW 801 engines. In contrast to the earlier description of the design, the Do 217 E had a new nose and the nose, cockpit rear, and ventral positions carried one MG 15 each. The design was to carry a maximum bomb load of two SC 500 and two SC 250 bombs. It was also possible to carry an aerial mine or torpedo, [3] for which the bomb bay had been substantially extended rearwards in the ventral area of the rear fuselage, nearly 70% longer in proportion than what the earlier Do 17Z had possessed. A "clamshell"-like dive brake was fitted aft of the tail, with rear-hinged single dorsal and ventral "petals" to deploy using a jackscrew during anticipated dive bombing missions. These features increased the design's weight to 10,500 kilograms (23,100 lb). Dornier had intended the speed to be in the region of 530 kilometres per hour (290 kn). [3]

Superficially a scaled-up Dornier Do 215, and initially powered by the same engines, the Do 217 was actually considerably larger and totally different in both structural and aerodynamic design. [13] The first prototype (the Do 217 V1) flew on 4 October 1938, but crashed seven days later during a single-engine flying test. [4] The aircraft had been piloted by Rolf Koeppe, a flight commander at the central Erprobungsstelle facility at Rechlin. A Dornier mechanic, Eugen Bausenhart was also on board. [14] It was found to be underpowered and was not manoeuvrable when compared with contemporary bombers. [15] Instability was a problem at first, but modifications such as fixed Handley-Page leading edge slots along the leading edges of the vertical stabilizers helped to improve flight stability. [16]

The second prototype flew on 5 November 1938. After arriving at Friedrichshafen in June 1939, further evaluations were scheduled to take place. Plans were made to install unitized Daimler-Benz DB 603 engines to enable the aircraft for high-altitude reconnaissance. This meant the fitting of a pressurized cabin. When Daimler-Benz failed to supply the engines, development came to a standstill. On 29 October the RLM ordered the aircraft to be scrapped, or a new use found for it. [17]

A third prototype flew on 25 February 1939 with Jumo 211A engines in place of the DB 601s. [18] On 15 August 1939 and 23 January 1940, the aircraft was flown to Rechlin, where it was tested in night flying trials. A number of the flights were to assess the performance of the new Siemens navigation aids under development. At the same time, Dornier also carried out fuel jettisoning and drop tank trials using the standardized 900 l capacity, vertical-finned drop tanks pioneered by the Bf 110D extended-range heavy fighter. As with the Do 17, the test team tried several tail configurations with the Do 217 V3. single, double and triangular-planform assemblies were tried. These designs were used in the Do 217 M-3, M-9 and Dornier Do 317. [17]

The same units were used on the fourth prototype V4 which flew in April 1939 at Friedrichshafen and Rechlin. The Jumo proved to be superior, and the designers deemed them to be essential if the desired performance was to be achieved. [18] In February 1941, the V4 began trials with the dive brake which was installed in the tail. This was to satisfy a demand for the Do 217 to conduct dive bombing missions. It also was fitted with a brake parachute to test the ability of the Dornier to conduct short landings. The parachute brake was also considered in use as a dive brake. [17] The V5 prototype was fitted with them and flew in June 1939. Later it was retested with DB 601s and was the third of six aircraft given the official designation Do 217 A-0. [18] The Jumo 211 B-1 was used in the V5 prototype. But in September 1939 the water pump and entire cooling system failed. On 28 April 1940 the DB 601 A-1s were fitted. [19]

The V6 prototype was powered by Jumo 211B engines, but was also tested with DB 601s. The V7 was tested with BMW 139 engines, but as these had been abandoned for use in the Fw 190 fighter as early as 1939, use of the unpopular BMW 139 powerplants was never taken beyond the prototype stage. The V8 was given BMW 801 engines, which became the fixture for the entire E series. The Do 217A and C series were only built in small numbers. Owing to this the following D and F types never advanced beyond the design stage. [18]

There was a desire for the Do 217 to be capable of performing dive bombing, so it was therefore fitted with the aforementioned, tail-mounted dive brakes, with dorsal and ventral panels that were hinged, "clamshell"-fashion, at the extreme rear of the tail extension they emerged from. This could not be made to function adequately in the early models however, and was omitted until the Do 217 E-2 entered service. When this mark reached service, use of the dive brake was found to sometimes overstrain the rear fuselage, so it was often removed. [20]

The production specifications were ratified on 8 July 1939, with the ultimate goal of the Do 217 having the capability of flying maritime and land operations armed with glide bombs. The four-seat aircraft was adaptable to both land and maritime operations wherein the tactical emphasis was on bombing from a 50-degree dive angle, and it had a maximum speed of 680 kilometres per hour (370 kn). In contrast with earlier specifications for a modified version of the Do 17M, the proposed Do 217E had a new nose section design in which the A-Stand position was armed with a MG 15 machine gun. Additional MG 15s were to be located in the B and C-Stand gun emplacements. The design teams configured the bomb bay to carry two SC 500 and 250 bombs or four SC 250 bomb loads. In addition a LMB II aerial mine, or an F5 Torpedo could be loaded. Instead of the dive brakes being installed under the wings as on the R variant, it was placed on the tail of the aircraft. The design was tested in the E-1 and became the blueprint for all subsequent sub-variants. [11] The E-1 carried strengthened wing and tail structures to deal with the upgraded armament, which increased the aircraft's weight. [ citation needed ]

Wing Edit

The Do 217 was a shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane. Its two-spar wing was built in three sections: the centre section, incorporating part of the fuselage, and two outer wing sections with very little taper on the leading and trailing edges, leading out to a pair of broad, semi-circular wing tips. The stress bearing skin was riveted to spars and ribs. Owing to its future use as a dive-bomber, stressed skin construction was employed with the use of Z-section frames and stringers. Slotted ailerons were fitted to the outer wing sections. The inner split flaps were electrically operated and had a maximum flap angle of 55°. The ailerons were linked to the flap system to permit partial operation as flaperons, meaning if the flaps were lowered the ailerons drooped down. [21] The design of the rear and front spar attachments revealed the flanges of the spar were flushed with the wing surface making the most efficient structure. The outer wing leading edges were double-skinned. [21] In the wing space, a hot air feed was fitted, using heat pumped through lagged pipes from the engines to warm up and de-ice the wings. The ducts were located just forward of the front spar flanges and in between the main spars where they could escape into the wing. The hot air could escape through the apertures at the aileron hinges. [21] A diversion pipe was also installed in the engine nacelle, which could shut down the hot air flow to the ducts and divert the air out through bottom end of the nacelle if de-icing was not required. [22] The fuel and oil tanks were located in the wing and centre section. The two outer fuel tanks were located next to the outer side of the engine nacelle. The outermost fuel tank contained a 160 litres (35 imp gal) fuel capacity, while the tank closest to the engine could accommodate 44 imperial gallons (200 l) of oil. [21] Both were sandwiched in between the main and rear main spar. Between the fuselage and inner side of the engine nacelle, the 795 litres (175 imp gal) main tanks were located. [23] In the centre section a 1,050 litres (230 imp gal) fuel tank was installed forward of the bomb bay. [21]

Fuselage Edit

The fuselage was an all-metal structure built in three main sections. These consisted of the nose section, which accommodated the crew the section built integrally with the wing centre section and the rear fuselage. The main structure was built out of the standard stringer and former skeleton design, to which stressed skin was riveted. [21] The centre and rear sections were divided in the horizontal plane to within a couple of metres of the tail. The lower half of the fuselage contained the bomb cells, while the remainder and upper parts contained the bracing frames which supported and kept the bomb load secure. [21] In the lower half of the fuselage the bomb bay stretched past the trailing edge wing roots to nearly a quarter of the way down the rear fuselage. Extra doors were added for torpedo operations against Naval targets. The extreme rear of the fuselage contained stowage space for anti-shipping weapons. [22] In the upper fuselage, directly above the forward bomb cells in the centre section, just aft of the cockpit, the 242 gallon fuel tank was located. Attached to this was a fuel jettisoning pipe which was fitted to the roof of the fuselage and ran along it to the tail of the aircraft. It declined and exited the fuselage behind the tail wheel to allow fuel dumping in an emergency. [22] Above the two rear bomb cells in the centre section, a dinghy stowage place was created. To protect its very vulnerable structure against enemy fire, it was placed in a heavily armoured case. Either side of the dinghy, aft of the 242 imperial gallons (1,100 l) fuel tank, and directly above the rear bomb bay, were the oxygen bottles. [22]

In the extreme tail unit, the tail wheel was retractable and had its own folding doors. The tip or end of the fuselage could be removed to allow quick access for mechanics to enter the tail section and repair the jack mechanism which controlled the tail plane incidence and pivot. [22] The tail incidence was automatically changed when the landing flaps were lowered, or it could be adjusted manually. [16] This tip would be replaced by dive brakes in the event the Dornier was required to attack precision targets. [22] The horizontal stabilizer surfaces were conventional, as part of a twin tail empennage with "endplate" vertical fin/rudder units, as on the previous production Do 17 airframes. The rudder contained a balance tab while the elevators contained an elevator balance tab and an automatic dive pull-out tab, in the event of a dive-bombing mission. [22] The stabilisers were fitted with fixed slats, with the trailing edges of the slats positioned inside of the fins. The rudders had very narrow horn balances (the amount of rudder or active control surface forward of the rudder-stabilizer hinge) which allowed for better balance, and the trimming tabs extended the full length of the stabilizers trailing edges. The stabilizers also had the Handley-Page leading edge slots installed on the inboard side. [16]

Powerplants Edit

All the Do 217E variants were fitted with unitized, BMW 801A air-cooled 14-cylinder radial aircraft engine built by BMW. [24] [25] The early E-series variants were meant to be fitted with a BMW 801B engine design for portside use to employ counter-rotating propellers as a few other multi-engined Luftwaffe aircraft were designed to have (as with the He 177A) but this was never accomplished. The BMW 801 radials were mounted on welded steel tube mountings at the extremities of the wing centre section. The oil coolers were integral to the front lower section of the BMW-designed cowlings, as used in all twin and multi-engined aircraft that used BMW 801 radials for power. The machine had two oil and five fuel tanks to "feed" the engines, and they were protected with rubber and self-sealing coverings. In an emergency, CO2 could be released into the tanks to extinguish fires. The engines had three-blade, light alloy VDM propeller units installed. [16] Flame dampers were also fitted in the form of "fish tail" exhaust pipes. [22] Such a configuration gave a speed of 470 kilometres per hour (250 kn) (282 mph) at sea level and 530 kilometres per hour (290 kn) (318 mph) at 6,700 metres (22,000 ft). It enabled a service ceiling of 7,300 metres (24,000 ft) when fully loaded and 8,200 metres (26,900 ft) when lightly loaded. The Do 217's range was a much more impressive 3,900 kilometres (2,400 mi), (compared with the other German bomber types). [16]

The engines and their supporting struts were positioned well forward of the leading edge allowing plenty of room for the undercarriage and other components. In the upper forward part of the nacelle the de-icing tank was located. The undercarriage was the main structure in this part of the aircraft. Each main unit comprised two oleo legs and a single wheel. It was retracted electrically via the crew in the cockpit. [16] The adoption by the Luftwaffe midway through the war, of a general system of unitized powerplant installations for twin and multi-engined combat aircraft incorporating as many of the engine's auxiliary components (radiator and oil cooler, and all fluid and mechanical connections) into a single, easily interchangeable unitized "bolt-on" package, known as the Kraftei (power-egg) concept, was being widely adopted by the time of the Do 217's initial frontline appearance. The Junkers Jumo 211 was one of the first engines to be unitized as seen on the Ju 88A, with the BMW 801 radial and Daimler-Benz DB 603 following not long afterwards, as both the BMW radial and the DB 603 inline engines were to be used in such a "unitized" format to power the frontline models of the Do 217. [ citation needed ]

Cockpit Edit

Armament Edit

The defensive armament consisted of an A-Stand (forward firing machine gun position) in the nose with a MG 15 machine gun. In the C-Stand (lower rear gun emplacement) at the rear end of the undernose Bola gondola – a standard feature on many German twin-engined bombers – and a B-Stand position (rear-upper gun post) at the rear of the cockpit glazing, the crew were provided with MG 15 (E-1) or MG 131 machine guns (E-2). In the side of the cockpit, two MG 15s were mounted (one on each side) on bearings. As well as the manual machine gun positions, the E-2 was equipped with a Drehlafette DL 131 rotating turret armed with a 13 mm machine gun. [29] In some instances, a moveable 20 mm cannon was fitted in the nose and a fixed 15 mm weapon was installed in the floor of the nose. The weapons could be controlled by the pilot, via a firing button located on the yoke. To assist in acquiring his target, a Revi C12/C was installed in the cockpit. [30]

The maximum permissible bomb load of the E-series without sacrificing fuel load was 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb) of bombs of which a maximum of 3,000 kg could be carried internally. [31] To have the maximum load of 4,000 kg, part of the 1,050 litres (230 imp gal) fuselage fuel tank had to be sacrificed. If long-distance operations had to be flown, drop tanks could be fitted under the wings, which affected speed. [32] Beside the bomb load a LT F5 Torpedo could be carried in its long bomb bay, as well as three aerial mines (the E-1 did not carry the mine load of the E-2). [24]

Do 217 E Edit

The E series was the initial major production variant, based on V9 prototype, and powered by two BMW 801 radial engines. Deepened fuselage with larger bomb-bay, entered production in 1940. [34] [35] The V9 had been planned as the prototype for the E-1 variant. The V9 had a fixed MG 151 with 250 rounds of ammunition while the MG 204 was to be installed in the nose. The type was fitted with a dummy run of Lofte 7 and BZA 1 bombing systems. The main armament was to be a single torpedo of either SD 1000 or SC 1700 standard. When the mock up had been given the green light for technical development construction began in the spring, 1940. During September 1940 engine vibration problems were experienced but fixed quickly. During flight tests it was discovered the air brake caused a speed loss of 2 metres per second (4.5 mph). The V9 underwent heavy tests and was withdrawn to Rechlin, where it acted as a prototype until at least October 1943. During this time it also had trials with BMW 801A and BMW 801G engines. [36]

Do 217 E-0 and E-1 Edit

The E-0 was a pre-production bomber/reconnaissance version of Do 217E. It was powered by BMW 801A engines and armed with one forward firing 15 mm MG 151 cannon and five 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns on gimbal mounts. [34] It entered production and service in late 1940. [37] Continued development led to the Do 217 E-1. The Do 217 E-1 first flew on 1 October 1940. Full production level bomber/reconnaissance variant, similar to the E-0, and followed it into production and service in late 1940, 94 were built. [38] Additional armament consisted of a 20 mm cannon fitted in the nose. Its power plants were BMW 801s of 1,560 PS (1,539 horsepower (1,148 kW)). The aircraft could carry an internal bombload of 2,000 kg. Alternatively, it could carry a load of two LMW aerial mines or one torpedo. The E-2 could carry three mines. [24]

In late 1940, testing under operational conditions began. By March 1941, 37 217s had been built and test flown. Many of the E-1 variants, now being built in increasing numbers, were selected for conversion to the new improved fighter variants the planned 217H, P and R series. A large number of these "fighter/bomber" aircraft were put through severe testing runs between July and September 1941. Dornier was able to gain valuable knowledge for the future improvement of the armament and bomb jettisoning systems. Of the first six prototypes, two (the third and sixth) were delivered to operational units. The third, Wrk Nr. 1003 was lost on 22 May 1941 (at Rechlin) and 1006, the sixth prototype, was severely damaged on 11 April 1941 whilst with Kampfgeschwader 40. [39]

Do 217 E-2 Edit

The E-2 was designated as a level and dive bomber, which could be fitted with a clamshell design dive brake, mounted aft of the elevator's rear edge on the fuselage, with rear-end-hinged dorsal and ventral "petals" opened and closed with a jackscrew. It was powered by BMW 801L engines and armed with forward firing 15 mm MG 151, single MG 131 machine gun in dorsal turret, an MG 131 gun flexibly mounted at the rear of its ventral Bola gondola and three MG-15 machine guns. The E-2 entered production slightly later than the E-3 level bomber, and was produced in parallel, a total of 185 being built and entering service from summer 1941. [38] [40]

The Luftwaffe continued to develop the E series. Not satisfied with the E-1, it perfected a modified version it designated the E-2. Testing was not complete until March 1942. The prototype was Do 217 D-ABWC, which had arrived as an E-1 at Rechlin in mid-July 1939 for performance and tactical evaluations. Between that time and completion in March 1942, 34 reports were written in minute detail about all aspects of the Dornier's performance and systems. Improvements were added to existing E-1s, which were already being produced by late 1940, and to the prototypes V2 and V4 which would serve as the prototypes for the E-2. The V2 was given the DB 601 engines and a third aircraft, designated V4, was tested with Jumo 211s. Studies of the aircraft began on 15 August 1939, running concurrently with the development of the E-1s. Level, dive and torpedo carrying roles were all examined. Emphasis was also placed on developing a reliable reconnaissance type. These developments were significant as the trials undertaken by the E-1 prototype had not shown any negative characteristics. Level bombing tests were very positive. Only glide-bombing attacks using interception control, and with dive-brakes open, did not quite match the stringent specifications set some four years earlier. [39] According to the test pilots, the aircraft performed well with either the DB 601A, Jumo 211A/B, or even the BMW 801A-1 engines. Pleasing the designers, the test pilots also noted that with all auxiliary bomb racks removed test flights showed at an altitude of 6,000 metres, the Do 217 was quite capable of making an operational range of 2,400 km. With the addition of two 900-litre tanks, it increased to 3,700 km. [41]

The BMW 801 was the powerplant of choice, and although tested by the summer, 1942, the lack of replacements, low production on the usage of them in the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 series, prevented large-scale operational testing under combat conditions. In September 1941 Flame dampeners were fitted and testing completed. These fittings proved useful for all night operations regardless of the role the Do 217 was asked to perform. Further innovations were made regarding the installment of reconnaissance equipment, namely the standard Rb 20/30 cameras. During this final phase, plans to construct and designate an E-1b with MG 131 turret was explored, but later shelved. [42] Modifications were also made on the already operational E-1s before the E-2 entered service. One such modification was the installation of MG FF 20 mm cannons, the installation of a hand-held MG 131 in the forward-facing glazing of the cockpit and a MG 131 turret facing aft in the B position (rear cockpit covering the rear). De-icing systems were also installed in the cabin and tailplane for high altitude operations. [42]

Production of the E-2 began in March 1942. Some twelve of the 280 produced at Friedrichshafen were used as testbeds to keep pace with the constantly changing series specifications. Two, Wrk nR. 1221 and 1228 functioned as testbeds for the BMW 801 L-2 engines as well as flights to assess the installation of auxiliary 300-, 900- and 1,200-litre fuel tanks. During this time, an E-2 equipped with lattice-type airbrakes appeared. It had been designed in June 1940. Its weaponry consisted of a fixed MG 151 in its nose and a MG 15 and the A position. Three rotating positions were put in the B and C stand positions. The machine resembled the Junkers Ju 188. Later it was installed with Kutonase (cable cutting equipment). [43] The Do 217 E-1 and E-2 could reach 535 km/h at 5,300 m and none had a problem with maintaining altitude with BMW 801s, even with weapons, dive-brakes and dampers added, provided it had an all-up-weight of less than twelve tonnes. Machines over thirteen tonnes were difficult to handle and needed experienced pilots at the controls. [44]

The failure of the Heinkel He 111, Dornier Do 17, and Junkers Ju 88 during the Battle of Britain and The Blitz led the OKL to see the Do 217 as the only heavy bomber in the Luftwaffe which had the range, bombload and fighter defences for long-range bombing attacks. The E-2 had incorporated all the new design features such as the Drehlafette DL 131 turret and a modified bomb bay which allowed to hold 3,000 kg of bombs. The E-1s originally were given the FuG X, 16, 25 and PeilG V and FuBI 1 radio sets and navigation aids. The E-2 was given the FuBI2. In the next two variants, the E-3 and E-4, the Siemens FuG 101 electric altimeter was also added enabling the pilot to conduct more accurate and safer low-level attacks. The E-1 had Rüstsätz /R1 racks for 1,800 kg or bombs, the /R2 wing rack and /R3s for 50 kg of bombs. Dornier wanted to increase the strength of the racks to increase the size of external loads. A specialist company which had often collaborated with Dornier, Technischer Aussendienst, developed the /R20 rack which enabled heavier loads to be carried. The /R20 enabled fixed MG 81Zs to be installed in the tail cone. The previous lattice air brake was removed the drag was too much and it bent the fuselage out of shape, making the aircraft unsafe and hastening metal fatigue. [45]

Do 217 E-3 to E-5 Edit

In the E-3, additional armour was fitted to protect crew. Armed with forward firing 20 mm MG FF cannon and seven MG 15 machine guns. (Despite the large number of machine guns, the defensive weight of fire was light, with five of the gimbal mounted machine guns to be operated by the radio-operator, who could only use one at a time). [34] [46]

The E-4 was similar to the E-2, which it replaced in production, but with the dive brakes removed. It was fitted with Kuto-Nase barrage-balloon cable cutters in the leading edge of the wings. 258 E-3 and E-4 were built. [47] [48] The E-4 was identical to the E-2, with the exception of the heavy MG FF in the nose. Five of the six positions were flexible, with only one fixed gun the MG FF installed along the floor, just off centre. The cannon in the nose could be moved. [49] Both were powered by BMW 801L engines. [24]

The E-5 was a modified version of E-4 for anti-shipping operations. It was fitted with a bomb carrier for a Henschel Hs 293 glide bomb or a drop tank under each of the outer wings, and carried the appropriate Kehl series radio guidance and control transmitter system for the missile. It was usually operated with a missile under the starboard wing and a drop tank under the port wing. Sixty-seven were new-built with additional 34 converted from E-4 airframes. [2]

Testing with glide bombs was halted as the electrics were too sensitive to moisture, rockets prone to icing and the radio valves in the control units (in the aircraft) were disrupted by vibrations. By May 1942, hit rates were just 50 percent. In April 1942, the first E-5 reached the test centres at Peenemünde. Various test were made with aircraft with anywhere from 15.4 and 16.5 tonnes in all up weight. Often these tests were made to assess flight characteristics when carrying glide bombs such as the Hs 293. [50] The E-5 was given heating units to keep the cold from the heat-sensitive glide bombs' electrics. With external ETCs, but without Glide bombs and auxiliary fuel tanks, the E-5 could attain of a speed of 480 km/h at 5,000 m. With two external stores, its speed was reduced to 445 km/h and its weight, including 4,300 litres of fuel, was 16.85 tonnes. The Do 217 E-2/U1 was used as an E-5 prototype. Whether an E series Do 217 ever launched a Hs 294 glide bomb is unclear. The only known fact is that a Do 217 flew a Hs 294 to Berlin-Schonefeld in May 1943. The first launch of the missile was done from a Messerschmitt Bf 110, and thereafter was taken over by the Heinkel He 177 equipped with the FuG 203 Kehl transmitter to control the missile. Only the Do 217, He 177 and Focke-Wulf Fw 200 could carry a Hs 293/4 or Fritz X missile. [50]

Do 217 K Edit

To replace the Do 217, the RLM planned for the He 177 A-3 and A-5 to be the long-range carrier aircraft for missiles, owing to the lack of BMW engines to power the Dornier but problems with the engine reliability of the He 177A led to the failure of the plan. The Battle of Stalingrad used up more and more aircrew which prevented them retraining on the Do 217 for glide bomb operations. Owing to the problems with the He 177A, Air Inspector General Erhard Milch returned his attention to the Do 217 and demanded a greater number of improved variants for Precision-guided munition (PGM) operations. [51]

In early 1942, tests on a new and improved, completely glazed cockpit for the Do 217 series had been underway at the Hamburger Schiffbauanstalt (Hamburg Shipbuilding Institute). E-2s were fitted with a new streamlined "stepless cockpit" following its conceptual debut in January 1938 for the He 111P, as this design philosophy became the standard for almost all German bombers later in World War II, which eliminated the separate windscreen panels for the pilot of earlier versions of the Do 217. The lower nose of the K-version also retained the Bola inverted-casemate gondola for a rearwards-aimed ventral defensive armament emplacement, with its forward end fully incorporated with the new nose glazing design. The testing for this new well-framed cockpit glazing format for the later models of the Do 217, was carried out at the Shipbuilding Institute in Hamburg. The design of the cockpit was put to the test using water pressure to simulate a speed of 700 km/h. Only a few of the glass panels failed, caused by inadequate mounting. The cabin design passed the tests easily. [52] Initial flights took place on 31 March 1942 after teething problems had been resolved. The Do 217 K V1 flew with BMW 801A-1s from Löwenthal and Erprobungsstelle Rechlin. This was followed by the ten-airframe pre-production batch, Do 217 K-01 to K-010. Mass production of the Do 217 K-1 began at the Dornier factory at Wismar. [53]

The first prototype, a modified E-2 flew on 31 March 1942, [54] with the aircraft showing higher maximum speed owing to reduced drag. The Do 217 K entered production from September 1942. [55] BMW believed that the type could reach an operational ceiling of 7,000 m, notwithstanding an A.U.W of 16.8 tonnes. Tests at Peenemünde in June and July 1943 showed that while the Do 217K could carry and deploy a Fritz-X PGM, it was still controllable. [56]

Do 217 K-1 Edit

The Do 217 K-1 was a night bomber version with the 1560 PS BMW 801L engine. [57] It carried the same crew of four in the "stepless cockpit" crew compartment with a revised defensive armament of a twin-barreled 7.92 mm MG 81Z machine gun in the nose, two single MG 81s or twin-barrelled MG 81Z in beam positions, a MG 131 in the B stand position dorsal turret, the DL 131/1C, and another in a ventral position inserted in a Walzenlafette WL 131/1 cylindrical carriage at the rear of its Bola gondola. [58] 220 were built. [2] It had an average flying weight of 12,700 kg, this aircraft achieved speeds of 520 km/h at 5,200 m. [ citation needed ]

The K-1 was equipped with GM 1 nitrous oxide boost, which increased the K-1s maximum speed by 84 km/h at 8,000 m at a rate of 100 g/s. With 50 g/s the aircraft's operational ceiling could be extended from 8,400 to 9,800 metres. Failure rates of the GM 1 were very high and attention was shifting to other Do 217 variants and the use of GM 1 soon stopped. [58] Serious shortages of the BMW 801 led to the cancellation of the K series but tests with BMW 801ML Motoranlage unitized-mount format radial engines, added a supplementary command unit to the usual 801 Kommandogerät engine control unit for each radial, which could engage the booster switch, ignition timing and the weak-rich mixture control automatically, which made the 801L powerplants easy to operate. Oil pressures also triggered operation of the VDM propellers, which on the K-1 subtype were 3.9 m in diameter. A smaller, 3.8 meter diameter wood-bladed propeller could be used as an alternative, though with a slight loss of speed. The standard 2,165-litre fuel tank could be supplemented by two fuselage tanks with 700-litre capacity or with either the standardized Luftwaffe 300-litre drop tank used on many German front-line military aircraft or fin-stabilized 900-litre drop tank as the Bf 110D used. An all-up-weight of 15 to 16.5 tonnes could be expected. The K-1 would need some 850 to 1,110 m to get airborne. Taking off from a grass strip, an altitude of 20 m was reached after 1,500 m and from a concrete runway it was 1,300. With two auxiliary tanks its speed dropped by 4.5 percent, and with bombs, by 6 percent. Flame-damper equipment also caused serious speed reductions 7 percent in level flight and 9 percent when at operational ceiling. [59]

Do 217 K-2 Edit

Do 217 K-3 Edit

The next variant was the Do 217 K-3. A revised anti-shipping version, the Do 217 K-3 was similar to the K-2 but fitted with improved FuG 203-series Kehl missile guidance equipment for Fritz-X glide-bombs or Hs 293 missiles. 40 were converted from M-1 airframes. [2] It was given the K-2s larger wings. When fitted with external ETC weapons racks it was named the K-3/U1. It had improved armament, a MG 81Z and MG 81 J in the nose. [61] The K-3 did not roll off the production lines until the beginning of 1944. The Dornier Do 217 M-11, its intended successor as the standard missile platform, was only produced in small numbers owing to lack of production capacity. [62]

Do 217 M Edit

As the BMW 801 radial engine used by the Do 217K was in great demand for the Fw 190 fighter, the Do 217M, a version powered by Kraftei-unitized installation versions of the largest displacement inverted V12 then in service, the 44.5-litre displacement Daimler-Benz DB 603 liquid-cooled inverted V12 engine, was developed in parallel with the 217K. It shared the new forward fuselage of the 217K, with the first prototype flying on 16 June 1942. [63] [64] According to RLM plans, production of the M model, which was powered by DB 603 A-1s was due to commence with two aircraft in May 1942 and 10 M-1s in the summer. By March 1943 a production target of 42 aircraft per month was to be achieved. The DB 603 A-3 was chosen as the increased performance handed the aircraft improved characteristics. However, it had not been fully tested and a number of technical problems arose. A Do 217H (a glider-bomber for land operations with E-2 airframe) would be used for endurance testing. This would provide useful testing evaluations for the M-1. [65]

The M V1 was to be the first prototype. It was an E-2 conversion with altered cockpit and DB 603 engines and operated from the central Luftwaffe Erprobungstelle aircraft test centre at Rechlin from September 1942. During the winter, the prototype performed long-range and high-altitude flights. On 16 November it was forced landed for unstated reasons. Different engine-cooling systems were tried and flame retarders added, although the addition of the dampers caused a reduction in speed of 15 to 25 km/h depending on altitude. The first production prototype series M-0 aircraft (M-01) crashed in Lake Müritz, just north of the Rechlin test base, on 9 September 1942, while on an engine test. The M-02 was given wing reduction to 59 m 2 , which became the predecessor of the M-3. The M-03 refined the design with DB 603 A-1 engines but crashed after a mid-air collision with a Dornier Do 215 on 14 May 1943. Six 0-series aircraft (Wrk Nr. 1241 to 1245) were manufactured. [66] Rechlin log books included frequent references to a M-04 from December 1942 to May 1943. This aircraft was apparently used for de-icing and cabin heating tests as well as high-altitude testing with DB603s. Some M-0s were used to evaluate performance with glide bombs (Wrk Nr. 1244 and 1245). These aircraft were named M-0/U1. Each had an ETC 2000 XII, under the fuselage. [67]

Do 217 M-1 Edit

The M-1 night bomber version, equivalent to Do 217 K-1 but with DB603A engines, carried similar armament and bomb load to K-1. [68] [69] Daimler-Benz DB 601s were also used on some variants to keep the airframes in service (the shortage of powerplants made this difficult). [70] Mostly though, DB603A-1 engines were used on the M-1, its only major difference from the K series. The M-1/Umrüst-Bausätze 1 (abbreviated "/U1") incorporated the M defensive armament and the lattice air brake of the E-2. The MG 81Z and 131 were to be replaced by the MG 151 in the A-stand position. Problems with the air brakes prevented serial conversions. By November 1943 the M-1/U1 had matured into a night bomber with anti-glare protection in the cabin. The machine was equipped with a MG 131 in the nose, two MG 81Js in the cabin windows and two MG 131s in the B and C stand. [67] Some M-1/U2s were fitted for deployment of German PGM guided ordnance with the required FuG 203d Kehl IV guidance transmitter, and rear-looking FuG 216 Neptun R radar equipment. [71] 438 M-1 were built by Dornier in Munich and Wismar. [2]

Do 217 M-2 to M-11 Edit

Torpedo-bomber version of Do 217M. Only a single prototype was built, the Junkers Ju 88 being chosen as a torpedo-bomber instead. [64] The M-5 series was a modified version of M-1 fitted with Hs 293 missile recessed under fuselage. Only one prototype was built. [69] The last in the M series was the M-11. It was a revised anti-shipping version of M-1, with extended wings of K-2 and provision for one Fritz-X or Hs-293 under fuselage. 37 M-11 were converted from M-1 airframes. [2]

Do 217J Edit

In 1941, with Germany under increased night-time attack by RAF Bomber Command and with shortages of the Messerschmitt Bf 110 and the preferred Junkers Ju 88C night fighters, it was decided to supplement the night-fighter force with a version of the Do 217E, despite its much greater size and 15-ton weight. [72] This aircraft, the Do 217J, was fitted with a new "solid" nose, similar to that used by Dornier in night fighter versions of the Do 17 and Do 215, with four forward firing 2 cm MG FF cannon and four 7.92 mm machine guns. [55] [63] By October 1940, the production of heavy night fighters and night fighters such as the Do 217 and Ju 88, had been discussed comprehensively and by 5 November 1941 these discussions had been concluded. On 23 November the Technische Amt (T.A.) had ordered the Dornier bomber fleet to be withdrawn in accordance with a decision made earlier that year on 23 May. Dornier designated the subject of their new project the "Do 217Z", later renamed the Do 217J. [ citation needed ]

The Japanese Imperial Navy and Japanese Army Air Force had also taken an interest in license building the type in the summer 1942, demonstrating the type's potential. The Luftwaffe, had no intention of delivering the Do 217 to Japan, and none were ever exported. [73] Dornier encountered many problems in procuring the BMW 801 engines required for the night fighter versions. Junkers had also struggled with BMW deliveries, its Ju 88C variants were to be powered by the BMW as the initial Jumo 211B/F engine plan had been abandoned. [73] The Do 217s competitor, the Ju 88C, had only four fixed guns, whereas the Dornier could hold eight. In most cases, the Ju 88C carried only one 2 cm MG FF and three 7.92 mm MG 17s. [73]

In January 1941 Junkers concentrated on the C variant designs. It planned on producing 60 C-4s and 374 C-6s powered by Jumo 211s. It later transpired to Dornier that Junkers also wanted the BMW 801 to power the C-6. The power plants would also be supplemented with GM-1 nitrous oxide injection engine performance boosters for greater performance or alternatively, using the new, more powerful Jumo 213. The Ju 88s weaponry was improved by the addition of one or two MG FFs in the fuselage. Both the Do 217 and Ju 88 used the FuG 202 Lichtenstein B/C sets, but later Ju 88s were given FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1s and later FuG 220s. The equipment of the Dornier did not change. Against this competition Dornier needed to improve the types abilities as a night fighter. [73] The first problem Dornier attempted to overcome was long and short range capabilities. A modified E-1, (Wrk Nr. 42) was used to test the equipment for the forthcoming Do 217J. During testing the characteristics of the various types fire extinguisher hardware were carried out. Performance trials were carried out in January 1942 using an E-2, Wrk Nr. 1122 which was put through its paces at the Löwenthal testing facility. [73]

Dornier intended the prototype to ready by February 1942. The machine, Wrk Nr. 1134, was a modified E-2 and equipped with FuG 202 and a Spanner-Anlage Infrared gun sight. These systems enabled the Dornier to detect the heat signature of enemy aircraft. Heat seeking detection at limited range making the Dornier a good proposition for the Defence of the Reich campaign. Testing was set back as the prototype crashed owing to engine failure. The continuing slow development of the IR equipment precluded its use in the J-1. Work on the IR program was sped up until late 1943. Modified IR equipment appeared in 1945 and was installed in the Ju 88 G-6. [74]

Delays of BMW 801 engine deliveries forced the project to be temporarily abandoned. In November 1941 the directive for the design team had been a J-1 with a Spanner IR system, and a J-2 with Lichtenstein radar. In 1942 the directive changed slightly, and the J-2 was to be fitted with AI radar. Specifically, the Dornier was to be armed with four MG FF fuselage mounted cannon and machine guns for bomber assault, and one MG 131 each in the B-Stand and C-Stand positions for defence from RAF night fighters. Curiously, the night fighter version was ordered to be able to carry eight 50 kg bombs [75] so the type could act as a night fighter and intruder over enemy territory. [76]

The electronic equipment to be installed was listed as the FuG X, 16, 25 Peil G V air-to-ground communications and blind landing devices. The FuB1.1 was also listed as a potential piece, and if possible a FuG 101 radio equipment was to be fitted as standard. It was intended to equip J-1 with the Lichtenstein FuG 202, which had an effective range of 4,000-metre, with three tubes. The weight of the equipment would reduce the performance of the J-1 by 30 – 40 km/h so in January 1942, Dornier opted to install the IR spanner equipment instead of the Lichtensten. [75] A rear braking system had also been in the original plan, but it was deemed unnecessary. [75] The design was declared ready on 5 January 1942 and first flew later that month. The prototype was delivered to the Tarnewitz test facility where gunnery trials took place with MG FF and MG 17 weapons. Satisfied with the performance, series production began in March 1942. [77]

Do 217 J-1 Edit

The operational Dornier night fighter, redesignated J-1, before entering operations was powered by BMW 801L engines. It was fitted with a revised crew compartment housing a crew of three, with a solid nose housing four fixed 7.92 mm MG 17 machine guns, with four 20 mm MG FF/M cannon in the forward part of the ventral gondola. It retained the MG 131s in a dorsal turret and ventral position of the bomber, and could carry eight 50 kilograms (110 lb) bombs in the rear bomb-bay, with a fuel tank in the forward bomb-bay. [78] [79]

Production had commenced in March 1942, during which eight J-1s were built. In April, 13 followed and 55 were built in May. Despite this start production declined in June and this trend continued until November 1942, when only four were built. Dornier had been ordered to withdraw Dornier airframes for unspecified reasons. Owing to this, by 31 December 1942, only 130 J-1s had been completed. [2] Dornier kept a production run of 19 aircraft for evaluating equipment. These were to be used when Josef Kammhuber, General of the Night fighters demanded the J-1 to have a modified fuselages made available for upward firing cannon installed within the dorsal areas of the fuselage, above the wing roots. This armament configuration was called Schräge Musik ("slanted" or "oblique" Music). A prototype was given four MG 151s in place of its MG FFs and named J-1/U1. [77] The prototype was modified in September 1942 and sent to the Tarnwitz Experimental Establishment on 14 October for tests on gunnery performance. The guns delivered 125,000 rounds during tests without problems. The concept was available for adoption, although Dornier had some reservations about the slow firing pattern of the MG 151/20. [77]

The Dornier appeared to be a very effective night fighter with significant hitting power. However it attracted strong criticism from the Luftwaffe. After the first J-1 was delivered to 4./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1, in March 1942, the crew complained it was too heavy, and criticised its takeoff and landing characteristics. The pilot complained it had "too little performance reserve". The aircraft's high service loading and its poor manoeuvrability in aerial combat did not enhance its performance reputation. [77] Part of the types performance issues lay with the fact the MG 131 defensive guns and bomb release mechanisms had remained, and been built into the J-1 to allow for its use as a bomber. With eight machine guns mounted in the fuselage and the supporting ammunition, the weight was increased and outweighed the Do 217E by 750 kg. [77]

Do 217 J-2 Edit

The J-2 night-fighter version of Do-217J was fitted with FuG 202 Lichtenstein radar in nose, and had the rear bomb-bay plated over. The MG FF/M of the J-1 were replaced by 20 mm MG 151 cannons. [78] The J-1 was withdrawn from intruder duty following an order stopping night intruder raids against England, [78] while the J-2 proved disappointing as a night fighter, showing poor performance and manoeuvrability, [63] [80] although they were used for early trials of the Schräge Musik arrangement of upward firing cannon, three Js being used for tests in July 1942. [81] The J-2 was only converted from J-1s. [2]

There was little difference in design between the J-1 and J-2, save for the FuG 202 Lichtenstein C1 radar fitted to the later. The first C-1 had been used in the Dornier Do 17 Z-10. Production of the C-1 began in full only after the Do 217J production had ceased. FuG 202 Lichtenstein radar continued to be used in Dorniers, although historian Manfred Griehl points out this was only according to the manuals. [76]

Complaints were made by crews about the performance of the Dornier in comparison to other German types. On 12 May 1942 Erhard Milch ordered that Dornier cease all night fighter design. It was decided that the Ju 88 series only (Ju 88C-6) would continue to be developed and serve as a heavy night fighter. Strangely, the order was not passed onto the Dornier design team who continued to produce the N variant. [76]

Do 217N Edit

The end of the J series did not mean the end of the Dornier night fighter. One of the few German fighter pilots to side with the type against its critics was Hauptmann Rudolf Schoenert of III./Nachtjagdgeschwader 3. Schoenert suggested to his Commanding officer, in July 1942, that trials be made of weapons slanting upwards at an angle of 70° (later known as Schräge Musik) in the fuselage in the hope of increasing the efficiency of his Do 217. This entailed mounting four to six MG 151/20 autocannon in the centre of the fuselage. At Technisches Amt, two Do 217s, one with four and the other with six MG/151/20 cannon were ready for inspection on 5 August 1942 and testing in September. [82] The idea of the upward firing cannon had originally come from an engineer, Dr. Poppendieck, in June 1942. [82] Nevertheless, Schoenert built on it, and with the introduction of the IR spanner and headlight, the bomber could approach from below a British bomber and avoid exposure to its powerful powered turrets guarding its tail, nose and upper fuselage by attacking from behind or head-on. Unlike the B-17 Flying Fortress or B-24 Liberator, the British bombers did not have a ventrally-located Ball turret, and the new Dornier design attempted to take advantage. [82] It was decided, due to cost, to limit the upward-firing armament to four guns. Other tactical improvements involved fitting a semi-rigid brake parachute in October 1942, allowing the Dornier to adjust to the speed of the bomber before firing on its target. The prototypes J-1/U2 and J-1/U4 were tested under these conditions. [82]

These designs were to be carried forward into the new variant, the Dornier Do 217N. The BMW 801 that powered the Do 217J proved underpowered, so a night-fighter using the more powerful DB 603 A-1 [83] engines was produced, with the first prototype flying on 31 July 1942. [80] While it had much improved performance, it was still unpopular due to its poor agility and climb rate, [63] and was prone to engine problems. [81] Ten pre-production series N variants were designated as test beds. Trials began in the summer of 1942. On 16 August the second prototype Do 217, N V2, entered trials,. The N V1 and N V2 were the main testbeds, and the DB 603 A-1s they were powered by were tested at high altitude. On 11 October 1942 the N V1 crashed after stalling with its landing gear down and crashing into Müritz Lake, killing the crew. On 21 December 1942, 100-hour engine endurance trials began at Rechlin with the DB engines. The pistons became useless after 91 hours. Testing of DB 603 A-2 inline engines was carried out between 28 April and 8 May 1943, but the programme was beset by continual breakdowns and the project was abandoned. There was no further record of the N variant prototypes after 20 June 1943. [83]

In April 1943, the four MG FF guns had started but were not completed until the late summer. The third prototype, N-1/U was fitted with MG 151/20 and unspecified aerodynamic refinements. The machine was used in high-altitude de-icing tests, and the aircraft was tested with Lichtenstein BCR and Bernhardine radar. In August ten of these aircraft were constructed, and between 27 and 31 August, they were fitted with their Schräge Musik at Erprobungsstelle Tarnewitz and Wismar Testing Facilities. The tenth N variant, designated N-0, underwent radio trials. The machine was tested with the Peil G VI/APZ 6, a later and more sophisticated variant automatic direction-finding equipment. On 2 December further tactical trials were carried out with infrared target-illuminating equipment. These trials were carried out with DB 601 powered J-1s. [84]

N-1 and N-2 Edit

After testing was satisfied the two variants, the N-1 and N-2, which had two sub-variants, were fitted with FuG 202. The N-1 variants were given two sub-variants which were to follow the design of the E-2/E-4 and the J-1/J-2 with emphasis on range and endurance. Extra fuel tanks were added to the empty bomb bay. For operations over water the heavy night fighters were fitted with lifeboats and radio transmitters. The FuG X with TZG 10 and FuG 16. IFF equipment was the FuG 25s. The N also had the FuG 101 radio altimeter, blind flying equipment FuB1 2 and PeilG V. AI search radar was the FuG 202. The no longer needed bomb release gear remained, bringing the aircraft up to 15,000 kilograms (33,000 lb) on take-off, so it was barely able to reach 7,400 metres (24,300 ft). Fuel consumption lightened the load, and the Dornier could reach a maximum operational ceiling of 8,400 metres (27,600 ft). The speed of the N was a maximum of 500 kilometres per hour (270 kn) at 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The N-2 was much improved, as it was much lighter and refined. [84]

Overall the N-1 was an initial production of the J-1 version. Powered by a DB 603 it had similar armament to Do 217 J-2, retaining defensive armament. Entered service in April 1943. [69] Some modified with dorsal and ventral guns replaced by wooden fairings as Do 217 N-1/U1, conversion with Schräge Musik arrangement of four upward-firing 20 mm MG 151s as Do 217 N-1/U3. About 240 built. [69]

The Do 217 N-2 was a new build equivalent of Do 217 N-1/U1 some were fitted with two or four cannon in Schräge Musik installation. About 95 were built [85] until it was retired from front line use in mid-1944. [86]

The N-2 was originally not to have the Schräge Musik armament configuration or a brake parachute, but it was then decided to fit the armament set for tactical reasons. A semi-rigid brake parachute was also installed for unspecified reasons. The N-2 prototype was a converted E-1, serial 0174, code PE+AW. Communications were improved on the FuG 16 ZY and FuG 214. The B and C cupolas were removed and the positions fared over with Plexiglas and wood. The MG FF guns were replaced by MG 151/20 cannon. The MG 17s in the nose were to be abandoned with more powerful armament, but this was never carried out. To kill the excess weight that had plagued earlier types, the bomb bay, its doors, and the bomb release gear were removed, and changes were made to the control panels. The gaps were replaced by lighter wood parts which reduced weight, allowing heavier armour protection for the crew. The N variant was the most heavily armoured Dornier variant. [87] The improvements enabled a top speed of 525 kilometres per hour (283 kn) (an increase of 25 kilometres per hour (13 kn)) and a reduction from 15,000 kilograms (33,000 lb) to 12,500 kilograms (27,600 lb), which increased ceiling height to 9,500 metres (31,200 ft). [87]

Do 217A Edit

The A variant was a pre-production reconnaissance version, with original shallow fuselage and powered by DB 601A engines. Armed with three MG 15 machine guns. Nine built, entering service in late 1940, and used for secret reconnaissance missions over the then neutral Soviet Union. [38] [88] Although the specifications had originally envisaged a multi-role aircraft which could perform bombing missions, it was to function in reconnaissance roles. The fuselage had to be extended to accommodate the two cameras which could be "accessed directly by the crew" (presumably in flight). [89] Dornier was ordered to produce three A-0 series machines up to the E variant. This changed to six as the number of reconnaissance machines was inadequate for the military's need. The small production run would consist of six aircraft. The original power plants, the DB 601Fs, could not be installed in time and the lower performance DB 601B engines were assigned to the type instead for the short term. As in the Dornier Do 17, Rb 20/30 and 50/30 cameras were to be installed. The 20/30 would be fitted in the fuselage while the 50/30 camera was to be placed in the cockpit and be jettisonable. For emergencies the aircraft was to have a fuel transfer unit control installed to move fuel from one tank to another. [89] The first four A-0 aircraft were powered by DB 601Bs while the last two were given DB 601N engines in January 1940. [89] The tests were problem free. However the RLM requested a B variant design which would have a fairing in which the film footage would be stored. Dornier reported that the A-0s were not getting the power plants they required for high altitude reconnaissance sorties so construction had to be delayed. The Do 217B program was suspended, as it turned out, altogether. [90]

Dornier completed work on the V6 prototype, the fourth A-0 aircraft. On 15 October 1939 it was flown successfully. The bomb bay had been enlarged and continued testing various weaponry until 1941. It had DB 601P engines installed and its wing was enlarged in early 1941. The DB 601Ps could operate a maximum altitude of 5,800 m and would use high octane C3 aviation fuel. It should have been ready to fly by March, but problems with the engines slowed progress. [25] At that time Dornier was working on additional features, in particular a new pressurised cabin for the A variant. It also hoped to introduce GM-1 booster units to increase performance at extreme altitudes. The first trial of this aircraft took place on 23 April 1940. [25]

The RLM had stated it wanted the A prototypes to be tested by May 1940 with its high altitude engines. Owing to unresolved engine complications testing was delayed. Finally, on 1 October 1941 RLM ordered Dornier to return the aircraft to its original condition and abandon high altitude modifications. In January 1942 Dornier was ordered to prepare the two Do 217A aircraft fitted with DB 601Fs for immediate combat operations in both transport and bomber roles. The conversion was to be complete by February but the aircraft were not operational. Finally one machine was made ready and began operations with DB 601F engines on 30 December 1942, some ten months later. The other machine was sent to Löwenthal in July 1940 and had undergone trials with autopilot controls. From March 1941 it had been fitted with BMW 801A-1s and later A-2 engines for greater reliability on long-range sorties. In the summer of 1942 BMW 801G-1 engines were installed while later it had trials with BMW 801G-2 engines which had GM-1 boosters fitted in January 1943 for high performance at altitude. [91] A number of the A prototypes served as test beds through the war. The last (V7) flew testing improvised de-icing systems at altitudes of 9,000 metres. In December 1944 the Dornier projects were halted owing to lack of fuel. [91]

In 1940–1941 the A-0s that were allocated to combat units saw service mainly in Western Europe serving in Kampfgeschwader 2 from bases in the Netherlands. [36]

Do 217C Edit

The C series was a pre-production bomber powered by DB 601A engines and original shallow fuselage. It had five MG 15 machine guns installed and 3,000 kilograms (6,600 lb) bombs as its main offensive armament. Five were built and used as test beds. [38] [88] The V9, which had acted as a prototype for the E variant was also used for the C-0 series. The C-0 was a three crew combat aircraft powered by Jumo 211B engines and had a four-bladed 3.8 m airscrew. The RLM found no faults with the new machine in a June 1939 inspection. The only minor complaint was the limited view from the pilots' seat. Apart from the same engines and small fuselage space inherent in C-series aircraft, externally the C looked like the A-0 series. [36] On 12 November 1940 Dornier increased the number of the crew to four to enable the five MG 15 weapons in the A, B and C-Stand positions to operate with the maximum protection. The bomb bay had also been modified to take four SC 500 or multiple SC 50 bomb loads. The Do 217 C-0 was equipped with a Lotfe 7A bomb aiming system and a Revi 12C sight for the pilot. For high-altitude flight sixteen 32-litre oxygen bottles were installed. The C-0 was capable of achieving a maximum speed of 475 kilometres per hour (256 kn) at an altitude of 5,600 metres (18,400 ft). Carrying a full operational load, its maximum speed was reduced by 20 kilometres per hour (11 kn). [92]

The first Do 217 series aircraft, Wk Nr. 2710 flew on tests between September 1940 and March 1941. It crashed on 2 July 1942 at Rechlin. The second C-0 prototype was fitted with dive brakes on the under side of the wings but this configuration was abandoned in January 1941 and replaced by a brake parachute installed in the tail. The third prototype flew on 6 September 1940 and four further machines flew between September and November 1940. The final machine, 2716, flew on 6 November 1940. The eight machines remained at Rechlin in various test bed roles until at least July 1942. The C series project was abandoned and its variants never entered mass production. [93]

Do 217H, L and R Edit

The Do 217 H was a conversion of a Do 217E with DB 601 engines fitted with experimental turbo-superchargers. [55] The H V1 to H V3 prototypes were designed as unarmed bombers with DB engines with 3.8 m VDM propellers. Bombs, Recon cameras, and dive brakes were all dispensable. The H V1 was delivered in September 1941 but crashed soon after as a result of propeller failure. After the evaluation of the flight, the wings were expanded to 67 m 2 . In September 1943, after nearly two years of constant delays, the H V1 was fitted with DB603G prototype engines. It is unknown how these tests developed. The H V2 also crashed on 25 October 1942, severely injuring the crew. The cause was the propellers. The H V3 tested a variety of DB603s until November 1944. On 9 June 1942 it successfully tested at high altitude. It also proved successful testing twin exhausts and pulse jets. Later, in October three and four-bladed duralumin propellers were used. Because of better vibration characteristics, the four-bladed VDM was judged the best performer. [94] On 11 October 1942 the first flight was made at 8,000 m. After, 9,000 m flights were reached. In September 1943 the DB603E had improved superchargers, giving better high-altitude performance. The H series continued as test beds for the M series until October, when they were cancelled for lack of fuel. [95]

The L was a variant of the Do 217K with revised cockpit layout and armament. Only two prototypes were built. [96] The R was a Dornier Do 317 with cabin pressurisation systems removed and modified to carry Hs 293 missiles. Only five built. [97]

Do 217P Edit

High altitude reconnaissance/bomber version with two DB 603B engines supercharged by a single Daimler-Benz DB 605T engine, in a so-called Hohen-Zentrale Anlage (HZ-Anlage) installation in the central fuselage, as one example of the Henschel Hs 130E had been fitted with, solely for powering a shaft-driven centrifugal supercharger. Three prototypes, plus three pre-production Do 217P-0 aircraft, armed with six MG 81s. Ceiling of 16,200 metres (53,100 ft). [85] [98]

  • Do 217 A-0: Pre-production series with two 1,100 PS (809 kilowatts (1,085 hp)) DB 601B inline engines, used for reconnaissance missions. Only eight aircraft were built.
  • Do 217 C-0: Pre-production bomber, DB 601B engines, increased defensive armament. Only four built.
  • Do 217 E-0: Pre-production bomber with deepened fuselage and powered by two 1,560 PS 1,147 kilowatts (1,538 hp) BMW 801A engines.
  • Do 217 E-1: Production bomber with five 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine guns and one 15 mm MG 151 cannon for defence.
  • Do 217 E-2: Bomber with dive bombing capabilities, with three 7.92 mm MG 15s, two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns, one 15 mm MG 151, and a 4,000 kilograms (8,800 lb) bombload.
  • Do 217 E-3: Level bomber, seven 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15s and one forward-firing 20 mm MG FF cannon.
  • Do 217 E-4: BMW 801L engines.
  • Do 217 E-5: E-4 with extended wingspan, modified on production line with added Kehlradio control gear to launch Henschel Hs 293 missiles.
  • Do 217 G: In January 1940 Dornier produced a data sheet for a Do 217 G with BMW 801 engines with the same airframe as a Do 217 E-1. None were built.
  • Do 217 H: Conversion of a Do 217 E with DB 601 engines fitted with experimental turbo-superchargers.
  • Do 217 K: Bomber with redesigned forward fuselage with stepped windscreen eliminated, a common World War II German bomber cockpit design concept adopted just before the start of World War II initially on earlier Heinkel bombers (He 111P and 177A). Two 1,560 PS BMW 801L radial engines.
  • Do 217 K-1: Standard bomber version.
  • Do 217 K-2: Extended wingspan with Kehl radio gear to carry Fritz X bombs on underwing racks.
  • Do 217 K-3: Similar to K-2, but capable of carrying both Henschel Hs 293 or Fritz X.
  • Do 217 M: Bomber Do 217K with 1,750 PS 1,287 kilowatts (1,726 hp) DB 603A inline piston engines.
  • Do 217 M-1: Equivalent to the K-1.
  • Do 217 M-3: DB 603A-engined equivalent to the K-3.
  • Do 217 M-5:Kehl radio gear-equipped Henschel Hs 293 carrier with a single missile mounted semi-externally beneath the fuselage.
  • Do 217 M-11: Similar to the K-2 with extended wingspan, Kehl control gear and Fritz X bombs.
  • Do 217 J: Night fighter based on the Do 217 E. Solid nose with four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns and four 20 mm MG FFs.
  • Do 217 J-1: Night intruder version.
  • Do 217 J-2: Dedicated night fighter. Bomb bays removed.
  • Do 217 L: Modified version of the Do 217K with rearranged cockpit and defensive armament. Only two built.
  • Do 217 N: Night fighter based on the Do 217 M. Armament similar to Do 217 J but with improved 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons replacing the 20 mm MG FFs plus the addition of four 20 mm MG 151/20s as Schräge Musik.
  • Do 217 N-1: Similar to J-2.
  • Do 217 N-2: N-1 with defensive gun turret and bomb bay equipment removed to reduce weight.
  • Do 217 P: High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft with two 1,860 PS 1,368 kilowatts (1,835 hp) DB 603B supercharged by a DB 605T in the fuselage (the Höhenzentrale, or "HZ" system) with a ceiling of 16,155 metres (53,002 ft). Three Do 217 P-0 pre-production aircraft only.
  • Do 217 R: Redesignated Dornier Do 317 prototypes used as Henschel Hs 293 carriers.

The production of the Do 217 lasted until December 1943. Between January and August 1944 conversions only took place. Below is a list of the numbers produced. [99]

Quarterly production 1939–1944:

Quarter Year Bombers Night fighters
Fourth 1939 1 0
First 1940 1 0
Second 1940 4 0
Third 1940 3 0
Fourth 1940 12 0
First 1941 47 0
Second 1941 52 0
Third 1941 105 0
Fourth 1941 73 0
First 1942 99 8
Second 1942 164 75
Third 1942 160 46
Fourth 1942 141 28
First 1943 187 70
Second 1943 181 64
Third 1943 135 73
Fourth 1943 1 0

In October 1945 British Captain Eric Brown undertook full handling trials with a Do 217 M-1 WNr 56158 at RAF Farnborough. He recalled a distinctly "underwhelming" experience. [100] Brown recalled that he took off with full power of some 2,700 rpm and the lightly loaded Do 217 M left the runway at 160 km/h (99 mph). Brown held a shallow climb, waiting to reach 200 km/h (120 mph) before retracting the undercarriage. Brown timed the time it took to retract, which was between 30 and 40 seconds. [100] At 150 m (490 ft) he reduced power to 2,500 rpm and raised the flaps at about 230 km/h (140 mph). With the flaps up a climbing speed of 230 km/h (140 mph) was established giving a rate of "very moderate proportions". [100]

While in cruising mode, Brown took the Dornier to 5,500 m (18,000 ft) and with the tail at +2 degrees angle of incidence, gave it a top speed of 523 km/h (325 mph), true air speed. [100] Brown stated the aircraft was very stable about all three axes, and the controls were well harmonised and effective, and not unduly heavy for bomber operations. At the other end of the speed range, stall occurred at 154 km/h (96 mph), and was characterised by a gentle nose-down pitch. [100] At this stage Brown tried the Dornier's single-engine performance and this "proved decidedly unimpressive". It underlined that the aircraft was underpowered. Above 1,500 m (4,900 ft), height could not be maintained at 2,300 rpm and its ceiling was barely 7,600 m (24,900 ft). [100] Brown reverted to "normal power", and decided to "chance his arm" (risk) on a dive-bombing procedure in what he described as a "ponderous aeroplane". Brown made a straight dive to 700 km/h (430 mph), the maximum permitted below 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in order to get a feel for the controls, which began to stiffen considerably. The engine revolutions built to 2,750 during the dive causing a lot of noise. Brown pulled the aircraft out of its dive though it called for a "good full-blooded heave" on the control column. [100]

After climbing to regain the height lost, Brown decided to test the tail-mounted, clamshell-like dive brake and automatic pull-out equipment. The Dornier entered the dive automatically when the dive switch was selected and soon attained its "braked condition", limiting the airspeed to 575 km/h (357 mph). The pull-out was initiated by hitting the bomb-release stick on the control column or selecting the "level flight" switch, which also retracted the dive-brake. Brown stated, "All very sedate and totally unimpressive as a precision weapon". [100]

The landing procedure began at an air speed of 250 km/h (160 mph). The oil coolers were opened fully and the radiator hatches opened to 30 degrees. At 240 km/h (150 mph) the undercarriage was lowered, which again took 30 to 40 seconds. Flaps were lowered to their start position at 235 km/h (146 mph) and fully deployed at 220 km/h (140 mph). The tail had to be trimmed to 4 degrees incidence (tail heavy). [100] Final approach was made at 200 km/h (120 mph) and touchdown occurred at about 160 km/h (99 mph). Landing weight was roughly 13,000 kg (29,000 lb). The control column had to be held back beyond the neutral to keep the tail wheel locked until the landing run was complete. [100]

The first deliveries of Do 217s to operational units of the Luftwaffe was the pre-production Do 217A-0 reconnaissance aircraft, which entered service with the Aufklärungsgruppe der Oberfehlshaber der Luftwaffe to carry out clandestine reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union. [101] [102] Deliveries of the Do 217E started late in 1940, with some aircraft joining another reconnaissance unit, 2 Staffel of Fernaufklärungsgruppe 11, which was also involved in spyflights over the Soviet Union from bases in Romania. [103] [104]

Western Europe Edit

The first bomber unit to receive the Dornier Do 217 was II Gruppe of Kampfgeschwader 40 (II/KG 40) in March 1941, followed by KG 2 later that year. [105] [106] At first these units, based in the Netherlands, were used to carry out minelaying and anti-shipping operations over the North Sea. [106] [107] [108] On the night of 24/25 April 1942, however, Dornier Do 217s of KG 2 took part in an attack on the city of Exeter, the first raid of what was to become known as the Baedeker Blitz. KG 2's Dorniers were heavily deployed during the Baedeker raids, against British provincial cities which were less heavily defended than London, which continued until July that year. [109]

The Do 217 squadrons had little time to recover as on 19 August 1942 the Allies launched an amphibious raid on Dieppe in Northern France, with KG 2 launching almost its entire strength of 80 aircraft in response, losing 20 over Dieppe. It had suffered serious losses of trained personnel during operations during 1942, with the number of combat ready crews in KG 2 falling from 88 at the start of the year to 23 by September. [110]

The Dornier Do 217-equipped bomber units spent most of the rest of 1942 recovering from these losses and re-equipping with the more capable Do 217K and M. Night attacks against Britain re-commenced in January 1943, and continued sporadically throughout the year, often suffering heavy losses. As an example the Do 217 equipped KG 2 lost 26 complete crews during March 1943. [111] The pace of bombing attacks against Britain increased again in January 1944 with the launch of Operation Steinbock, with the Do 217 equipped I and III KG/2 and I/KG 66 being involved, these attacks continuing until May, with the bomber units again taking heavy losses. [112] [113]

Two Gruppen of the anti-shipping Kampfgeschwader 100 (KG 100) equipped with Do 217s in 1943, with II/KG 100 receiving the Do 217E-5, equipped to carry the Hs 293 guided missile and III/KG 100 the Do 217K-2, with the Fritz-X guided bomb. [114] II/KG 100 made its combat debut against Royal Navy warships in the Bay of Biscay on 25 August 1943, when it near missed the sloop HMS Landguard, while on 27 August, a second attack by 18 Do 217s sank the sloop HMS Egret and badly damaged the destroyer HCMS Athabaskan. [114] This attack lead to a temporary withdrawal of Royal Navy surface ships from the Bay of Biscay until the guided weapon equipped aircraft were transferred to the Mediterranean following the allied landings at Salerno. [115]

The final actions of Do 217 equipped units over Western Europe was against the allied Invasion of Normandy in June 1944, when the remaining Do 217 equipped bomber units, II/KG 2 and III/KG 100 were thrown into action against the Allied landings. Losses were heavy, with III/KG 100 losing 8 of 13 servicible Do 217s in 10 days of operations. [116] [117] As American forces broke out of the bridgehead at the end of July, III/KG 100 sent its remaining Do 217s to carry out attacks on bridges over the Rivers Sée and Sélune with Hs 293 missiles. They managed a single hit on one of the bridges, which remained in use, while seven Dorniers were lost. [118] [119]

Mediterranean and Italy Edit

Twelve Do 217 J-1 and J-2 variants were acquired by Italian Regia Aeronautica between September 1942 and June 1943 for night fighter operations. [120] One Italian unit was equipped: 235a Squadriglia of 60° Gruppo (41° Stormo). Based at Treviso San Giuseppe, then at Lonate Pozzolo, the unit performed poorly. The unit shot down only one enemy aircraft, and lost one of their own, after nearly a year of activity. [121] [122]

When the Italian Armistice with the Allies was announced on 9 September 1943, the Italian Fleet was instructed to sail to Malta to surrender. III/KG 100, based at Marseilles launched an attack from its base at comprising 11 Do 217s armed with Fritz-X guided bombs against Italian warships near Corsica, sinking the battleship Roma and damaging the battleship Italia. [123] The Dorniers were then deployed against the Allied landings at Salerno, damaging the cruisers USS Savannah and HMS Uganda and the battleship HMS Warspite with Fritz X bombs. [114]

The Dorniers of KG 100 continued to be deployed against convoys in the Mediterranean, but by the time of the Anzio landings in January 1944, heavy allied fighter cover and jamming reduced the effectiveness of the attacks, although Hs 293 missiles sank the cruiser HMS Spartan and several destroyers and merchant ships. [124] [125]

Defence of the Reich Edit

Deliveries of the Dornier Do 217J-1 started in March 1942, with night-fighter pilots being unimpressed, considering the type to have poor manoeuvrability and speed. The J-1 was relegated to the training role by summer that year, replaced by the radar equipped J-2 in front-line units. [126] Despite the aircraft's faults, the Do 217 was widely used, being used by 11 night-fighter Gruppen, although it did not completely equip any unit, usually being operated in conjunction with the more popular Messerschmitt Bf 110. [126] [127] The Luftwaffe deployed the Do 217 night-fighter over Italy and the Eastern front as well as in direct defence of Germany, but the type had been phased out of service by mid-1944. [128]

  • Luftwaffe[127]
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 1
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 2
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 4
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 5
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 6
    • Nachtjagdgeschwader 100
    • Kampfgeschwader 2
    • Kampfgeschwader 6
    • Kampfgeschwader 40
    • Kampfgeschwader 100
    • Kampfgeschwader 200
    • Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) operated six Do 217-J-1 and six J-2 [129]
      operated a single Do 217N-2, interned after landing at Basel in 1944 or 1945 and was in use until at least 1946. [130]
  • A total of 1,925 Do 217s were produced, however no complete aircraft survives. The largest known relic of this aircraft, a large piece of the rear fuselage, can be found at the Italian Air Force Museum in Rome. [131] One remnant of a Do 217 in the United States is one of the Motoranlage unitized BMW 801ML (BMW 801L) radials, still fully cowled, at the New England Air Museum that used to power a Do 217. [132] The remains of two aircraft then based at Toulouse that crashed over the Pyrenées in July 1944, were being recovered in 2013. [133]

    Data from Aircraft of the Third Reich Volume one, [134] German Aircraft of the Second World War [135]


    Do-217M

    It turned out that the Daimler Benz engineers had changed the crankshaft, spark plugs, and the design of the main bearing oil feed they made the propeller reduction gear casing longer. Engine control became more automated through introduction of a single control lever. The Germans managed to establish precise cross coupling among the main DB 603 operating parameters: rpm, supercharge, fuel-to-air ratio, ignition advance, and impeller rotational speed. In addition, the engine was fitted with automatic units controlling the fuel pump and the supercharger hydraulic clutch. Moreover, the engines operated quite well, without signs of pinking, vibration, and malfunctions. They compared favorably with VK-107A in spooling up, transition from one power setting to another, and start-up at low temperatures.

    The focus on German power plants continued when a Do 217M aircraft fitted with two DB 603 engines underwent testing. Except for its powerful engines, the captured bomber generally did not impress leading Air Forces Scientific Research Institute specialists. Its maximum speed of 477 km/h could not be considered sufficient either for the end of the war or for early 1946 when it was first flown in the USSR (lead engineer Engineer-Major P. I. Kuzmin, pilot Lieutenant Colonel V. I. Zhdanov). The Dornier also lagged behind the domestic Tu-2 in rate of climb (it took 15-5 minutes to climb to 5000 meters) and service ceiling (7750 meters). Its defensive armament was less effective as well.

    At the same time, the upper DL-13I/ID semi-mechanized gun turret was interesting. It had electrical drive allowina it to move weapons horizontally 360° at a constant speed. This turret was better than the Soviet "purely mechanical" UTK-1 mounted on I1-4 and Li-2 aircraft. However, in general, the defenses were weak and it was almost exclusively confined to performing night missions. In January 1946, study of the Dornier ended.

    Specification
    Do217K-1 Do217M-1 Do217J-2 Do217N-1
    Dimensions
    Length, m 17.12 17.12 17.67 * 17.67 *
    Wing span, m 19.0
    Wing area without a fus., m² 48.5
    Wing area,including a fus., m² 56.7
    Height in line of flight, m 4.8
    Weight, kg:
    Empty weight, kg - 9065 8730 10270
    Loaded weight - 16790 13180 13200
    Powerplant
    Engine (two) BMW 801D DB603A BMW 801ML DB603A
    Power, hp takeoff 1700 1750 1580 1750
    at alt 1440 1620 1380 1850
    m 5700 5700 4600 2100
    Performance
    Max speed, km/h at alt 515 560 489 515
    m 4000 5700 5500 6000
    Cruise speed, km/h at alt - 400 465 470
    m - 5400
    Rate of climb min - 6.7 3.5 9
    to alt, m - 2000 1000 4000
    Ceiling, m - 7350 9000 8900
    Range, km - 2150 2050 1755
    Armament
    7.92-mm machine guns 3 ** 3 ** 4 4
    13-mm machine guns 2/3 2/3 2 2
    15/20-mm cannon no no 4 4
    Internal bomb load, kg 2500 2500 no 400
    Bombs, kg 4000 4000 no 400

    ** - the nose 7.9-mm twin MG 81Z machine gun was quite often replaced with 13-mm MG 131.


    World War Photos

    Do215 V-3 Do 215 V-3 25-C03 Night fighter Do 215B-5 of NJG 2, Holland Do215 engine
    Do215 NO-TB Do215 NO-TB Do 215 PK-EQ Do 215 2
    Do 215 nose Dornier Do 215B-1 W.Nr. 0048 NO+TB in flight 1940 Aerial reconnaissance aircraft Do 215B-4 PK+EM in flight Prototype Do 17S-01 D-AFFY, 1938
    Dornier Do 215B-1 in flight 1940 Do 215B-1 W.Nr. 0048 NO+TB in flight 1940 2 Dornier Do 215B Dornier Do 215 B-4 reconnaissance aircraft
    Dornier Do 215 cockpit interior Crashed Dornier Do 215 Dornier Do 215 B-4 front view Smolensk 1941 Night fighter Dornier Do 215 B-5 Kauz III, code R4+SN of NJG 2 in flight 1942
    Dornier Do215 B-1 Dornier Do 215 “The Flying Pencil” in flight Dornier Do 215 B-1

    Bomber and reconnaissance aircraft Dornier Do 215 was the “younger brother” bomber Do 17. Do 215 kept the basic design solutions of “flying pencil”, but was powered by inline engines Daimler-Benz DB601 Aa.
    Due to the sensation that the Dornier Do 17 had caused at an air show in Zurich in the summer of 1937, numerous countries began to take an interest in the type. Yugoslavia acquired a production licence for the Do 17K and Do 17M versions. In the meantime, a new version for the Luftwaffe, the Do 17Z, went into production but was not licensed for export. Dornier soon made efforts to obtain such approval. RLM finally allowed the export under the condition of a deviating designation Do 215.
    As before, Yugoslavia was the first interested party. A pre-production Do 17 Z-0 was fitted with a pair of Gnôme-Rhône 14N radial engines as a demonstration aircraft and was given the designation Do 215 V2 before being presented to the Yugoslavian Air Force. Previously, a Do 17 Z-0 with the standard BMW Bramo 323A-1 engines had been redesignated the Do 215 V1. However, the V2 showed little improvement in flight characteristics over its predecessor, which was already in production in Yugoslavia, so no order was placed. Dornier then decided to equip the Do 215 with the more powerful DB-601A engines made by Daimler-Benz. A corresponding prototype flew under the designation Do 215 V3 and showed considerable increases in performance compared to the other prototypes.
    In December 1939, Sweden ordered 18 Do 215 A-1s to replace the undelivered French Breguet 694s, but the ordered aircraft were not delivered due to a German export embargo and the order was subsequently cancelled in September 1940. The German Luftwaffe took delivery of the aircraft instead.
    In 1941, some Do 215Bs received the armament head already mounted in the Do 17 Z-10 “Kauz II” instead of the nose glazing for night fighter purposes. These aircraft were given the designation Do 215 B-5. At least 17 aircraft were converted into such night fighters.
    Dornier Do215 were used in combat by Germans and Hungarians. Three aircraft of this type were sold to the USSR. Number built: 101.

    Bibliography

    • David Donald: Warplanes of the Luftwaffe, Barnes and Noble 1994
    • Manfred Griehl: Dornier Do-17 E-Z, Do 215 B – The Flying Pencil in Luftwaffe Service
    • Christopher F. Shores: Luftwaffe Fighter, Bomber & Marine Camouflage & Markings 1940 Volume 2 – Bf110 – Ju87 – Fw200 – He59 – He115 – Do215 – Do18 – Do24 – Ar196, Osprey Aircam Aviation Series №S11
    • Heinz J Nowarra: The Flying Pencil, Schiffer Military History
    • Manfred Griehl: Dornier Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft 1925-1945, Warbirds Fotofax, Arms & Armour Press 1990
    • Marek J. Murawski: Dornier Do 17/Do 215, Kagero Monographs 60
    • David Wadman, John Bradley: Aufklarer – Luftwaffe Reconnaissance Aircraft & Units 1935-1945, Hikoki Publications, 1997
    • J.R. Smith, Antony L. Kay – German Aircraft of the Second World War, Putnam 1990
    • J. Richard Smith: The Dornier Do 17 & 215, Aircraft Profile 164
    • Samoloty Luftwaffe 1933-1945 Tom I & II – Marek Murawski, Ilustrowana Encyklopedia Techniki Wojskowej (polish)

    Site statistics:
    photos of World War 2 : over 31500
    aircraft models: 184
    tank models: 95
    vehicle models: 92
    gun models: 5
    units: 2
    ships: 49


    Of the versions of the Do 215 that existed, the A-1 bomber with DB 601 engines, and the B-0 and B-1 export machines both re-equipped with FuG 10 navigation device for the Luftwaffe. The Do 215 B-5 was the first night fighter to be equipped with the FuG 202 Lichtenstein B/C navigation device. These aircraft saw action from January 1941 to May 1944 with I. and IV./NJG 1 and II./NJG 2. Α]

    • Luftwaffe
      Β] operated at least 11 aircraft.
      bought 2 aircraft from Germany. Γ]
      ordered 18 Do 215 A-1s but the aircraft were embargoed and transferred to the Luftwaffe.
      ordered Do 215s, but due to the start of World War II the order was never completed.
    • In summer 1939 the Luchtvaartafdeeling (Netherlands Army Air Force) planned to buy 24 to replace the Fokker T.V which suffered reliability problems with its engines and propellers.

    Obsah

    V roku 1932 ministerstvo zbrojenia (Heereswaffenamt) vydalo požiadavku na konštrukciu nákladného lietadla pre nemecké štátne dráhy a zároveň na rýchle poštovné lietadlo pre Lufthansu. Továreň vo Friedrichshafene začala prácu na projekte 1. augusta 1932.

    Keď sa v roku 1933 dostali k moci nacisti, Hermann Göring sa stal s Erhardom Milchom, ako jeho zástupcom, národným komisárom pre letectvo, ktoré bolo zanedlho premenované na ministerstvo letectva, RLM (Reichsluftfahrtministerium). RLM označila nový stroj ako Do 17 a 17. marca 1933 len tri mesiace potom, čo sa dostal do úradu, nariadil Milch konštrukciu prototypov. Koncom roku 1933 vydalo RLM špecifikáciu na rýchle lietadlo s dvojitými chvostovými plochami nesúce špeciálne vybavenie, čím mali na mysli bombardér.

    Pôvodný návrh z roku 1932 (Do 17 V1), počítal s použitím len jedného smerového kormidla a Dornier pokračoval v tomto vývoji. Po prvýkrát bol Do 17 predstavený ako maketa v apríli 1933. „Špeciálne vybavenie“ malo byť inštalované neskôr, aby sa zakrylo jeho skutočné určenie. V apríli 1934 začala továreň Dornieru vo Friedrichshafene prácu na projekte s názvom „zadanie“. V priebehu tohto mesiaca bola navrhnutá obranná výzbroj a boli dokončené konštrukčné detaily bombového mechanizmu. Výroba týchto prototypov začala 20. mája 1934 a 23. novembra 1934 uskutočnil Do 17 V1, s jedným smerovým kormidlom a pohonom dvoch motorov BMW VI 7.3, svoj prvý let.

    Testovanie bolo oneskorené kvôli sérii nehôd, pričom stroj V1 bol poškodený pri pristávaní vo februári a v apríli 1935. Stroj V2, s dvojitými chvostovými plochami a pohonom dvoch motorov BMW VI 6.3, sa po prvýkrát vzniesol 18. mája 1935 a bol testovaný RLM spolu so strojom V1 na letisku Rechlin v júni. Počas testov sa ukázalo, že stroj V1 s jedným smerovým kormidlom má len čiastočnú stabilitu, preto bol upravený pridaním dvojitého smerového kormidla. Stroj bol zničený pri zlyhaní motoru 21. decembra 1935. Stroj V3, tiež s dvojitými chvostovými plochami, mal byť pôvodne osadený motormi Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs, no tieto neboli dostupné, preto bol osadený motormi BMW VI 7.3, rovnako ako V1 a po prvýkrát vzlietol 19. septembra 1935.

    Je potvrdené, že na rozdiel od Heinkelu He 111, ktorý bol od začiatku plánovaný na vojenské účely, bol Do 17 V1 navrhnutý ako rýchle, 6 miestne poštovné lietadlo, ktoré malo súťažiť s menším jednoplošníkom Heinkel He 70. Hovorí sa, že Lufthansa ho odmietla kvôli stiesnenej kabíne, ktorá bola príliš nepohodlná pre pasažierov a prevádzkové náklady príliš vysoké na poštovné lietadlo. Podľa príbehu zostali 3 prototypy nevyužité v továrni Dornieru v Lowentale takmer šesť mesiacov, kým ich kapitán Untucht z Lufthansy neobjavil. Po obdržaní povolenia na let s jedným so strojov, začal s ním vykonávať takmer kaskadérske kúsky. Po pristátí konštatoval, že stroj je obratný ako stíhačka ak mu dodajú viac pozdĺžnej stability, bude z neho rýchly bombardér. Zanedlho nato Dornier prepracoval chvostové plochy a obnovil záujem o tento stroj.

    Dornier bol potom požiadaný vyrobiť prototyp V4. Niektoré zdroje uvádzajú, že tento sa líšil od stroja V3 tým, že okienka pre pasažierov boli odstránené a jednoduchá smerovka nahradená dvoma menšími. Fotografické dôkazy dokazujú, že V3 mala dvojitú smerovku od začiatku svojej konštrukcie. Testovanie prototypov V4, V6 a V7 bolo úspešné a vzniklo viacero prototypov ako V8, ktorý bol favoritom na prieskumný stroj s dlhým doletom, zatiaľ čo V9 bol skúšaný ako rýchle dopravné lietadlo. Stroj V9 bol stále letuschopný ešte v roku 1944.

    Kokpit a predná časť trupu mali tradičný stupňovitý kokpit a nos bol plne presklený. Prvé verzie boli prezývané „lietajúca ceruzka“, kvôli štíhlemu a dlhému trupu. V dôsledku skúseností zo španielskej občianskej vojny bola zvýšená strecha kokpitu a spodná polovica priestoru posádky bola rozšírená smerom von, aby tak mohlo byť vytvorené miesto pre člena posádky obsluhujúceho ďalší obranný guľomet.

    Priestor kabíny bol rozšírený smerom k nábežným hranám krídel, kde bolo miesto dolného zadného a horného zadného strelca na jednej rovine. Kabína pozostávala z pilotovho sedadla a predného strelca v prednej časti kokpitu. Pilot sedel na ľavej strane, blízko čelného okna z plexiskla. Jeden z guľometníkov sedel na pravom sedadle, mierne posunutom dozadu, aby poskytoval miesto pre guľomet MG 15 kalibru 7,92 mm.

    Posádka Do 17 najčastejšie pozostávala zo 4 ľudí. Bombometčík, ktorý obsluhoval aj guľomet MG 15 v presklenom nose a zadný v nižšej polohe dvaja guľometníci obsluhovali dopredu strieľajúci guľomet MG 15 v čelnom skle a 2 guľomety MG v bočných okienkach na každej strane a tiež dozadu strieľajúce zbrane. Kabína poskytovala jasný a panoramatický výhľad vo veľkých výškach. Štandardná výzbroj bola 3 300 nábojov kalibru 7,92 mm v 44 dvojitých bubnových zásobníkoch.

    Krídla mali plochu 55 m² a rozpätie 18 m s nábežnou hranou, ktorá tvorila s odtokovou hranou takmer dokonalý polkruh. Korene nábežnej hrany splývali s hornou časťou trupu a kabínou. Ako sa krídlo rozširovalo dozadu, bolo zahnuté pod ostrým uhlom, takže odtoková hrana končila v takmer v polovici boku trupu, čím bol zvýšený uhol útoku. Táto konštrukčná črta bola použitá pri všetkých budúcich konštrukčných návrhoch Dornierových bombardérov, konkrétne Do 217.

    Trup bol dlhý 15,8 m. Bol tenký a úzky, čím predstavoval pre nepriateľa ťažký cieľ na zasiahnutie. Trup mal dvojité smerové kormidlá, čo malo zvýšiť jeho smerovú stabilitu. Pohonnú jednotku verzie Z-1, tvorili motory Daimler-Benz DB 601, no kvôli ich nedostatku boli použité motory Bramo 323 A-1. Tieto motory však mohli dosiahnuť maximálnu rýchlosť iba 352 km/h (vo výške 1 070 m), dôsledku čoho nedosahoval Do 17 rýchlosť vyššiu než 416 km/h v priamom lete a plným nákladom.

    Dolet Do 17Z-1 pri zemi bol 1 021 km, čo sa zvýšilo na 1 367 km vo výške 4 720 m. To mu dodávalo priemerný bojový dolet 740 km. Použitie motorov Bramo 323P vyústilo v ľahké zvýšenie všetkých výkonov u verzie Z-2.

    Dornier Do 17 bol vybavený dôležitým obranným mechanizmom, ktorým boli samosvorné obaly palivových nádrží, ktoré chránili nádrže v krídlach a trupe. To znižovalo stratu paliva a nebezpečenstvo ohňa, pri zasiahnutí v boji a často umožnili posádke spiatočnú cestu. Kyslík bol zabezpečený formou 20 fliaš pre použitie posádkou, pri lete nad 3 660 m.

    Komunikačné vybavenie pozostávalo z rádiostanice FuG X a neskôr FuG 10, smerový navádzač PeilG V a zariadením pre pristávanie na slepo FuG 25 IFF a FuBI 1. Posádka komunikovala pomocou palubného interkomu EiV. Bol taktiež použitý jednoduchý autopilot Siemens K4 Ü.

    Bombovnica obsahovala 4 bombové závesy, piaty pre bomby SC 50 a dva závesy ETC 500, určené pre ťažší náklad, každý s nosnosťou 500 kg. Bombový zameriavač Lofte A alebo B bol zabudovaný spolu s priezorom BZA-2. Bombovnica lietadla ponúkala dve možnosti. Prvou bolo nesenie 4 bômb s hmotnosťou 250 kg, pričom by sa znížil dolet. No ak by sa posádka rozhodla niesť iba polovicu nákladu, mohli byť do prednej bombovnice umiestnené palivové nádrže na predĺženie doletu. Bombometčík vypúšťal bomby pomocou zameriavača Lofte A/B, ktorý bol umiestnený na ľavej strane nosu lietadla a nasmerovaný priamo dolu. Plne naložený mal Do 17Z-1 váhu 7 740 kg.

    Do 17 E a F Upraviť

    Počiatočnú výrobu tvorili bombardovacia verzia Do 17E-1, skúšaná s dvoma motormi Daimler-Benz DB 600, a prieskumná verzia Do 17F-1, poháňaná rovnako ako prvé prototypy motormi BMW VI, ktoré boli zavedené do výroby v roku 1936. Prvé jednotky Luftwaffe boli prezbrojené na Do 17 začiatkom roku 1937. Medzitým Dornier plánoval pokročilejšiu verziu Do 17, s modernejšími a silnejšími motormi. Jeden z prototypov bol osadený motormi Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs, zatiaľ čo ostatné mali motory BMW 132 alebo Bramo 323. Do 17E-1 bol osadený dvoma radovými motormi BMW VI 7.3D, každý s výkonom 750 PS.

    Posádku tvorili traja ľudia. Rádiooperátor obsluhoval 2 guľomety MG 15 kalibru 7,92 mm v zadnej časti kabíny. Zásobník mal 750 nábojov. Bombovnica bola rozdelená do dvoch častí. Každá obsahovala 5 bombových závesov s individuálnou nosnosťou 50 kg. Pod lietadlom mohol byť taktiež nainštalovaný jeden podves ETC 500/IX, na bombu s hmotnosťou 500 kg. Dornier Do 17E-1 s označením D-AJUN, bol skúšaný v nezvyčajnej konfigurácii dvoch bômb SC 500, nesených vedľa seba pod trupom. To však zapríčinilo značný nárast hmotnosti a odporu, preto táto konfigurácia nebola operačne použitá. Verzia E-1 pokračovala v nesení malých nákladov bômb až do druhej svetovej vojny. Výkon verzie E-1 jej umožňoval dosiahnuť rýchlosť 330 km/h vo výške 3 000 m. Počas strmhlavého bombardovania mohol trup Do 17 dosiahnuť rýchlosť 500 km/h. Jeho maximálny dostup bol 5 500 m.

    Viacero Do 17E-1 bolo prestavených na verzie E-2 alebo E-3 a prinajmenšom tri E-2 a jeden E-3 boli používané spoločnosťou DVL a Hansa-Luftbild GmbH, na tajný vojenský prieskum tesne pred vojnou.

    Do 17F-1 bola prieskumná verzia s dlhým doletom, založená na modifikovanom Do 17E. Prototyp Do 17V8 bol použitý na skúšanie konfigurácie F-1 a V11 na verziu F-2. Obranná výzbroj pozostávala z guľometu MG 15 v hornej zadnej časti a dolnej časti kokpitu. Trup obsahoval dva fotoaparáty spolu so šiestimi odhadzovateľnými tubami pre blesk. Do 17F-1 bola používaná až do roku 1938, kedy bol nahradený verziou Do 17P. Bol postavený len jeden kus Do 17F-2, s označením D-ACZJ, a bol používaný spoločnosťou Zeiss-Jena ako továrenské lietadlo. Prestavba dvoch Do 17E-2 na použitie hviezdicových motorov BMW 132F, viedla k vzniku Do 17J-1 a J-2.

    Tieto lietadlá slúžili ako testovacie stroje na hodnotenie motoru BMW 132 pre použitie v Do 17. Týmito strojmi boli V18 (výrobné číslo Werknummer 2021) a V19 (výrobné číslo Werknummer 2022). Skúšky začali na konci roku 1937. Podobná úprava, no s motormi Bramo 323 viedla k označeniu Do 17L-1 a L-2. Dve Do 17 boli premenované na prototypy V20 a V21 a použité pri skúšaní motorov Bramo 323 na použitie v Do 17. Testy boli uspokojivé a budúce sériové stroje mali byť osadené týmito motormi.

    Do 17 K Upraviť

    Dornierove lietadlá mali už dlhšie vynikajúcu povesť medzi juhoslovanskými pilotmi, vďaka ich kvalite, spoľahlivosti, odolnosti a službe. Dornierove stroje dostalo juhoslovanské námorné letectvo (Pomorsko Vazduhoplovstvo) v roku 1926, konkrétne išlo o ťažké bombardéry Dornier Komet a Dornier Y. Juhoslovania už s Dornierovými lietadlami boli oboznámení tak, že 19. novembra 1935 juhoslovanskí piloti vyskúšali prototyp Do 17V-3, s označením D-ABIH (výrobné číslo 258). Rozhodli sa zaradiť Do 17 do služby napriek tomu, že bol drahší než hociktoré iné lietadlo, kvôli nemeckej ochote dodať stroje rýchlo a bez obmedzenia množstva.

    Potom, čo videli Do 17M V-1 na leteckých pretekoch v Zürichu, Juhoslovanské kráľovské vojenské letectvo zakúpili licenciu na výrobu týchto strojov v továrni patriacej firme Državna Fabrika Aviona v roku 1938. Zabudovali do neho silnejší hviezdicový motor Gnome-Rhône 14N a nahradili aj pôvodnú výzbroj zabudovaním 20mm kanónov Hispano-Suiza HS.404 a tromi guľometmi Browning kalibru 7,92 mm. V Juhoslávii boli postavené 3 verzie. Prvou bol bombardér Do 17Kb-1 a druhou prieskumný Do 17 Ka-2. Poslednou verziou bol prieskumný Do 17Ka-3. Medzi Ka-1 a Ka-2 bolo len málo rozdielov, okrem zväčšenej zadnej streleckej veže, ktorá bola posunutá viac dozadu na verzii Ka-2. Verzia Ka-3 bola trochu pokročilejšia. Jej základ tvorila verzia M-1, spodné plochy boli pokryté duralminiom a mala zväčšené motorové osi a dlhšie motorové gondoly.

    Do 17 L a M Upraviť

    Verzie Do 17 L-0 a Do 17 M-0 boli vyvinuté paralelne, ako náhrada za staršie Do 17 E a F, pričom verzia L bola prieskumnou modifikáciou. Obe boli navrhnuté s použitím silnejších motorov DB 600A s výkonom 746 kW (1 000 hp). Dva kusy verzie L a jeden kus verzie M boli postavené ako prototypy novovzniknutej verzie, obe s pridaním ďalšieho guľometu MG 15 v nose lietadla. Prvý prototyp upravenej verzie, Do 17M V-1 (D-ABVD) bol poháňaný dvoma motormi DB 600 a predviedol pozoruhodné výkony, vrátane maximálnej rýchlosti 425 km/h.

    Na medzinárodnej leteckej súťaži vojenských lietadiel v švajčiarskom Zürichu, sa Dornier Do 17M V-1 ukázal ako líder vo svojej triede, a bol rýchlejší než najrýchlejšia zahraničná stíhačka, francúzsky Dewoitine D.510. Dornier Do 17 spolu s Messerschmittom Bf 109 vtedy vyhrali mnoho cien a predviedli schopnosti nemeckého leteckého priemyslu. Napriek tomu, kvôli nedostatočným dodávkam motorov Daimler-Benz, musel byť sériový Do 17M osadený motormi Bramo 323, pričom prieskumná verzia Do 17P bola poháňaná motormi BMW 132N, kvôli lepšiemu doletu.

    Dodávky motorov DB 600 naďalej zostali obmedzené, pretože výroba prešla na motory DB 601 so vstrekovaním paliva, ktoré boli vyhradené pre stíhačky Messerschmitt Bf 109 a Bf 110. Preto boli sériové modely základnej verzie Do 17M osadené motormi Bramo 323A-1 Fafnir s výkonom 670 kW (900 hp), ktorý mal primeraný výkon a dovolil zvýšiť náklad bômb na 1 000 kg. Takto vzniknutý Do 17 M-1 bol vyrábaný v malom množstve a slúžil do roku 1941.

    Prototypy sériových Do 17M boli stroje MV-1 (Wrk Nr 691) a MV-2 (Wrk Nr 692), ktoré boli testované s bombovým nákladom, zodpovedajúcim strednému bombardéra. Tretí prototyp, MV-3 bol skúšaný ako rýchly bombardér. Stroj MV-1 bol osadený dvoma radovými motormi Daimler-Benz DB 601, zatiaľ čo MV-2 a MV-3 mali motory Bramo 323A a D. RLM preferovalo široké uplatnenie motora DB 601, no kvôli požiadavkám na jeho použitie v stíhačkách a nedostatočná úroveň výroby donútili konštruktérov k použitiu motorov Bramo.

    Verzia Do 17M-1 začala svoju kariéru ako stredný bombardér, pričom bol schopný niesť 1 000 kg bômb. Bol osadený vzduchom chladenými motormi Bramo 323 A-1 a A-2. Obranná výzbroj pozostávala z dvoch a neskôr troch guľometov MG 15. Prvý z nich bol v prednom skle, obsluhovaný navigátorom a mal zásobu 370 nábojov. Zadný strelec v dolnej časti obsluhoval guľomet so zásobou 375 nábojov. Zadný strelec v hornej časti obsluhoval guľomet so zásobou 750 nábojov. Mohol niesť bombový náklad pozostávajúci z 20 kusov bômb SC 50 alebo dvoch SC 250 (500 kg), alebo 10 bômb SC 50 a jednej SC 250. Rýchlosť verzie M bola vyššia než verzie E. Dornier Do 17M mohol dosiahnuť rýchlosť 420 km/h vo výškach 3 500 m a maximálny dostup mal 5 790 m a dolet 1 570 km. Dopyt po prieskumnom stroji založenom na verzii M-1 viedol k vývoju verzie P-1.

    Do 17 P Upraviť

    Kvôli použitiu motorov DB 600 v Bf 109, by sa nebola dostala do výroby verzia L s ich použitím. Motory Bramo mali príliš vysokú spotrebu paliva, a tak mali stroje verzie M obmedzený dolet, nedostatočný pre prieskumné lietadlo. Namiesto neho boli použité hviezdicové motory BMW 132N s výkonom 645 kW, ktoré mali nižšiu spotrebu, a tak aj väčší dolet. Ďalšie dva prototypy s motormi DB 600 boli vyrobené pod označením Do 17R-0, no do výroby sa nedostali. Počas prieskumných akcií boli verzie P-1 ozbrojené štyrmi guľometmi MG 15.

    Verzia P mala podobné vybavenie ako Do 17M-1, s pridaním zariadenia na let naslepo a fotografickým vybavením na prieskumnú činnosť. Poháňali ju hviezdicové motory Bramo 132N s maximálnym výkonom 645 kW. Stroj bol osadený rôznorodým rádiovybavením, ako napríklad rádiom FuG III a U (Funkgerät), smerovým vyhľadávačom PeilG V (PeilG – Peilgerät) a rádiovým zariadením pre pristátia na slepo FuBI 1 (FuBI – Funkblindlandegerät). Trojčlenná posádka spolu komunikovala pomocou interkomu EiV (EiV – Eigenverständigungsanlage). Verzia P-1 mala fotografické vybavenie pozostávajúce z kamier Rb 20/30, Rb 50/30 alebo Rb 20/18 a Rb 50/18.

    Verzia P-1 Trop mala inštalované filtre a ochranu pre fotoaparáty. Kamery boli ovládané diaľkovo z kokpitu. Kvôli nedostatku nočných stíhačiek bol najmenej jeden Do 17P-1 pridelený na túto úlohu. Na mieste preskleného nosa bol inštalovaný plech a umiestnené tri 20 mm kanóny MG 151/20. Tento stroj patril pod Luftflotte 1.

    Stroj Do 17 P-2 bol identický s verziou P-1, s dodatočnou inštaláciou bombových závesov ETC 500 pod trupom. Tieto stroje boli navrhnuté k nočnému prieskumu. Je pravdepodobné, že Dornier použil na verziu P-2 modifikované stroje verzie P-1.

    Do 17 R Upraviť

    Na rozdiel od Do 17P-2 sa nedostal Do 17R-1 do sériovej výroby. Skúsenosti zo španielskej občianskej vojny potvrdili, že neozbrojené lietadlá boli ľahkou korisťou pre stíhačky. Verzia R-1 mala byť rýchlym prieskumným strojom s dvomi dodatočnými palivovými nádržami v trupe za bombovnicou.

    Boli navrhnuté dva varianty, prvý mal mať fotografické vybavenie pozostávajúce z jednej kamery Rb 50/30 a dvoch Rb 20/30, zatiaľ čo druhý variant mal tretiu palivovú nádrž v mieste kamery Rb 50/30. Jeho celková hmotnosť bola 7 300 kg, no v prípade potreby mohol byť preťažený na 7 500 kg. Posádku tvorili väčšinou traja ľudia, no v závislosti od misie sa k nim mohol pridať štvrtý člen. Aby vo väčších výškach dosiahol lepší výkon, mali byť použité motory DB 600G.

    Tieto pohonné jednotky boli skúšané na stroji Do 17R-V1, s označením D-ABEE. Druhý stroj Do 17R-V2, s označením D-ATJU, dostal ešte silnejšie motory DB 601A.

    Do 17 S a U Upraviť

    Poučenie zo španielskej občianskej vojny viedlo Dornierových konštruktérov k inštalácii dodatočnej obrannej výzbroje. Boje so sovietskymi stíhačkami ukázali, že Do 17 nebol až taký rýchly a nezraniteľný ako sa predpokladalo. Ako riešenie bol navrhnutý úplne nový gondolovitý kokpit, ktorý poskytoval posádke viac miesta a viditeľnosti. Horná časť kabíny bola nadstavená nad úroveň trupu a zvažovala sa dole, kde sa napájala na trup v mieste nábežnej hrany krídla. Zadný guľomet bol presunutý do zadnej časti gondoly, kde mal strelec oveľa lepší výhľad a palebné pole. Podobne aj spodná časť kabíny bola ešte viac znížená. Zmeny v podlahe a streche vyústili do celkového zväčšenia prednej časti lietadla, pričom zvyšok trupu zostal rovnaký. Nový kokpit bol prezývaný Kampfkopf, čo v preklade znamená „bojová hlava“.

    Prototyp verzie S bol skúšaný s radovými motormi DB 600G. Na prieskumnej verzii Do 17S-0 boli skúšané invertné motory, no táto verzia sa do výroby nedostala. Bolo postavených ďalších 15 „sprievodných“ modelov Do 17U-1, ktoré boli podobné verzii S-0, no s pridaním ďalšieho člena posádky, ktorý obsluhoval dodatočné rádiové vybavenie. Verzie U mali letieť pred ostatnými bombardérmi pri nočných misiách, pričom používali rádiové vybavenie na zameranie cieľa a zhodenie svetlíc na ich označenie. Na túto úlohu boli vybrané osobne jednotkou KG 100 ako skúšobné stroje. Verzia U-1 mala maximálnu rýchlosť 424 km/h a bojový dostup 4 500 m. Do roku 1938 bolo postavených 12 sériových strojov a tri prototypy.

    Dornier Do 17 Z Upraviť

    Verzie Dornieru Do 17Z boli najznámejšie a najvyrábanejšie modely a zúčastnili sa viac operácií než verzie E a U. Táto verzia bola upravená v dôsledku skúseností zo španielskej občianskej vojny. Predná časť trupu bola prepracovaná, so zníženým a rozšíreným kokpitom, kvôli inštalácii miesta pre zadného spodného strelca. Kabína bola upravená rovnako ako u verzie U a S.

    Na skúšku dizajnu boli postavené Do 17S a Do 17U, ktoré poháňal motor DB 600. No následkom požiadavky tohto motora zo strany stíhačiek, boli stroje osadené hviezdicovými motormi Bramo 323A. Náklad bômb bol zvýšený na 1 000 kg a posádku doplnil štvrtý člen. Ukázalo sa však, že výkon motorov bol nedostatočný, preto boli použité motory Bramo 323P. Boli postavené iba tri Do 17S a 15 Dornierov Do 17U. Po úpravách mal Do 17 s plným zaťažením bojový dolet len 322 km. Neskoršie verzie Do 17Z-3, Do 17Z-4 a Z-5, ktoré boli osadené fotoaparátmi a dvojitým riadením, tiež nemohli vyriešiť problém s doletom a bombovým nákladom.

    Prvá dodávka Do 17Z-0 bola vyrobená s motormi Bramo 323 Fafnir na skúšky, pričom motory DB 600 bolo stále ťažké obstarať. Táto verzia bola rýchlo nahradená modelom Z-1, ktorá mala pridaný guľomet pre bombometčíka. Zvýšená záťaž v nose stroja a pridané zbrane zapríčinili, že bombový náklad bol znížený na 500 kg. Nespokojnosť Luftwaffe s výsledkom skúšok verzií série Z, znamenala okamžité konštrukčné zmeny na dosiahnutie celkovej vyššej výkonnosti bombardéra.

    To vyústilo do celkového zlepšenia rýchlosti a dostupu všetkých modelov verzie Z, špeciálne potom verzie Z-5. Odhadované výkony boli: dostup 7 620 m a najvyššia rýchlosť 418 km/h, pričom hmotnosť stroja bola 8 100 kg. Nanešťastie sériové stroje nikdy nedosiahli tieto optimistické výkony počas neskoršej služby. Pri hmotnosti 7 740 kg používal ťažký Do 17Z-1 motory Bramo 323A-1, so samosvornými palivovými nádržami v trupe a v krídlach.

    Štvorčlenná posádka spotrebovala približne 20 fliaš kyslíku, počas dlhých letov vo výške nad 3 700 m. Dornier Do 17Z-1 mal rýchlosť 352 km/h vo výške 1 066 m. Motory Bramo však neumožňovali Do 17 dosiahnuť rýchlosť 416 km/h vo výške 3 900 m a v priamom lete, pri plnom zaťažení. Dolet verzie Z-1 na úrovni mora bol 1 021 km, pričom vo výške 4 724 m sa dolet zvýšil na 1 367 km.

    To sa týkalo najmä hlavného sériového modelu, Do 17Z-2. Tento model mal zabudovanú novú verziu motora Bramo 323P-1 s výkonom 746 kW (1 000 hp), ktorý bol vyladený špeciálne pre potreby Do 17. Nárast výkonu umožnil zvýšenie nákladu bômb z 500 na 1 000 kg. Plne naložený mal Do 17 dolet len 330 km. Výzbroj bola ďalej doplnená dodatočným párom guľometov, ktoré strieľali bočnými časťami gondoly tieto zbrane však obsluhoval jeden človek, preto nemohli byť použité simultánne.

    Od mája 1940 bolo zaradených do služby 422 Dornierov Do 17Z-2, v jednotkách Kampfgeschwader 2, Kampfgeschwader 3, Kampfgeschwader 76 a Kampfgeschwader 77. Zlepšovanie výkonov Z-2 spôsobilo nárast hmotnosti z 7 983 kg na 8 128 kg. Následkom ťažkých strát v Bitke o Britániu bolo rozhodnuté nahradiť kanón MG FF silnejším MG 151/15. No straty sa zvyšovali napriek tomu, že niektoré stroje niesli až 8 guľometov. Pôvodné guľomety MG 15 boli ponechané, čo bolo prítomné aj v nasledujúcej verzii Z-3.

    Verzia Z-3 bola bombardovacím modelom série Z, no napriek tomu bola používaná aj ako prieskumné lietadlo štábmi jednotlivých jednotiek. Motory a základné vybavenie boli zhodné s verziou Z-2 boli však pridané dve kamery Rb 50/30 a Rb 20/30 do vstupného otvoru posádky. Bol zavedený aj osobný fotoaparát, na zdokumentovanie bombardovacej misie. Neskôr bol pridaný aj autopilot. Verzie Z-2 a Z-3 boli vizuálne identické, mohli byť rozlíšené jedine odlišným vstupným otvorom verzie Z-3. Kvôli priestorovým problémom, spôsobeným pridaným fotografickým vybavením bola znížená zásoba streliva z 44 na 42 zásobníkov. Pohonná jednotka Z-3 bola vylepšená na verziu Bramo 323P-2. Tento motor bol potom použitý vo všetkých zvyšných modeloch verzie Z.

    Verzia Z-4 bola navrhnutá ako cvičné lietadlo. Napriek takmer identickému vzhľadu so Z-2 a Z-3, mala zabudované rozšírené vybavenie pre cvičné lety naslepo. Štvormiestny stroj mal jeden riadiaci knipel s dvojitým riadením, čo bolo dosiahnuté ramenom vyčnievajúcim doprava. Pedály smerového kormidla boli pred oboma sedadlami. Obranná a bombová výzbroj bola zredukovaná, kvôli zníženiu váhy.

    Verzia Z-5 bola podobná Z-3, s hmotnosťou 8 600 kg. Bola navrhnutá ako protilodné lietadlo a v trupe mala zabudované nadnášacie nádrže, v prípade že by bola nútená núdzovo pristáť na vodu. Väčšinou mali tieto nadnášacie zariadenia podobu nesfúknuteľných vankúšov, uložených v zadnej časti motorovej gondoly a vo výstupkoch na stranách nosa lietadla priamo za presklením.

    Neskôr boli vyvinuté ďalšie modely verzie Z. Verzia Z-6 mala byť prieskumným lietadlom, no napriek tomu zostala len v prototype. V priebehu vojny však na tento štandard bolo upravených niekoľko existujúcich bojových verzií. Tento typ bol určený na kontrolné lety zisťujúce stav počasia. Bol zhodný s verziami Z-1 a Z-2, no obranná výzbroj bola odstránená a boli pridané dodatočné palivové nádrže.

    To zvýšilo zásobu paliva na 2 890 l. Keďže lety prebiehali vo väčšej výške, boli pridané dodatočné kyslíkové fľaše, čím vzrástol ich počet z 20 na 24. Kvôli dlhým letom nad vodou, bol potrebný väčší nafukovací čln z verzie Z-5, so svojim dodatočným núdzovým vybavením. Verzia Z-6 bola tiež používaná ako nočná stíhačka. Niektoré Z-6 dostali prednú časť trupu z Junkersu Ju 88C-6 s guľometmi a kanónmi. Ukázalo sa však, že predná časť bola nevyhovujúca a musela byť prerobená. Na špičke nosa bol infračervený reflektor, ktorý sa stal zavedením radaru Lichtenstein zbytočným.

    Verzia Z-8 Geier nebola sériovo vyrábaná. Bola zamýšľaná ako lietadlo proti pozemným cieľom, dosiahla prvú vývojovú fázu, no nebola vyrábaná kvôli nedostatočnému výkonu a pancierovaniu proti protileteckým zbraniam. Zvýšenie pancierovania by znamenalo zníženie rýchlosti, čo by stroj vystavilo ešte viac nepriateľskej paľbe.

    Verzia Z-9 bola osadená špeciálnym bombovým mechanizmom, s oneskoreným zhadzovaním, pre nálety v malých výškach. Jej úlohou bolo potlačenie nepriateľskej protilietadlovej obrany, pričom zhadzovala malé bomby, prvé verzie trieštivých bômb. To však bolo možné len pri leteckej prevahe vo vzduchu, pretože Z-9 nemala pancierovanie. Trup a vybavenie bol zhodný so Z-1 a Z-2. Upravená bola iba bombovnica na nesenie 16 závesov na odhadzovanie bômb. Maximálna hmotnosť Z-9 bola 7 800 kg. Táto verzia sa však nedostala do sériovej výroby.

    Do 17Z v úlohe nočnej stíhačky Upraviť

    Potom, čo sa skončila výroba bombardéra v roku 1940, bola verzia Do 17Z upravená s použitím nosu z Junkersu Ju 88C, osadená jedným kanónom MG FF kalibru 20 mm, a tromi 7,92 mm guľometmi MG 17 na nočnú stíhačku. Tri prototypy boli upravené z existujúcich trupov verzie Do 17Z na konfiguráciu Do 17Z-7 Kauz I. Štandardný Do 17Z-7 bol osadený hviezdicovými motormi Bramo 323P-1 a posádku tvorili 3 ľudia.

    V porovnaní so štandardnou bombardovacou verziou, bolo palivo rozdelené do viacerých nádrží. Dve nádrže, každá s kapacitou 770 l, boli v krídlach. Tretia nádrž bola v bombovnici vnútri trupu, pričom mala kapacitu 895 l. Zásoba neseného kyslíku pre trojčlennú posádku bola zredukovaná na 9 fliaš, pretože záchytné lety vo veľkých výškach sa neočakávali. Prídavné pancierovanie, vo forme ťažkých oceľových plátov bolo pridané do nosu lietadla, na ochranu pred čelnou paľbou. Pôvodne bolo zamýšľané opancierovať celú kabínu posádky. To však nebolo realizované, pretože zvýšenie hmotnosti by ešte viac znížilo letové výkony, už beztak pomalého lietadla. Zásoba nábojov bola 3 000 nábojov pre 3 guľomety MG 17 a 400 nábojov pre 20 mm kanón MG 151.

    Neskôr bol dizajn ďalej upravený na verziu Do 17Z-10 Kauz II, pričom pevný nos mal zabudovaný infračervený vyhľadávací reflektor, pre infračervený detekčný systém Spanner Anlage. Verzia Z-10 bola vyzbrojená štyrmi 7,92 mm guľometmi MG 17 nad infračerveným reflektorom a dvomi 20 mm kanónmi MG FF v spodnej časti nosu. Posádka mala možosť nabíjať kanón MG FF zvnútra. Jeden stroj Kauz II bol vybavený a skúšaný s radarom Lichtenstein. Bolo prerobených iba 10 strojov z existujúcich modelov verzie Z. Vyhľadávací systém Spanner Anlage sa ukázal byť zbytočným a mnoho strojov verzie Z-10 ním nebolo vybavené. Najmenej jeden stroj Z-10 s označením CD+PV bol použitý ako testovacie lietadlo pre zavedenie radaru Lichtenstein na konci roku 1941 – 1942. Zbavený všetkých súčastí vybavenia nočnej stíhačky Do 17Z-10 vážil 7 300 kg. Výzbroj bola podobná verzii Z-7, s pridaním guľometu MG 17 a doplnením streliva o ďalších 1 000 nábojov v nose lietadla. Ďalšie zbrane zahŕňali guľomety MG 15.

    Do 215 Upraviť

    Model Do 215 bol vyvinutý ako exportná verzia strojov série Do 17Z a bol použitý v úlohe bombardéra, prieskumného lietadla a nočnej stíhačky.

    Nemecká výroba Upraviť

    Oficiálne štatistiky vykazujú 2 139 Dornierov Do 17, ktoré zišli z nemeckých výrobných liniek. V Dornierovej továrni v Oberpfaffenhofene bolo postavených 328 Dornierov Do 17E spolu s ďalšími 77 strojmi Do 17F a 200 kusov Do 17M. Počet vyrobených Do 17Z v tejto továrni predstavuje 420 kusov. Vo Friedrichshafene bolo vyrobených 84 kusov Do 17K, pričom niektoré z nich boli predané do Juhoslávie. Výroba Do 17P bola rozdelená medzi viaceré továrne. V továrni Siebelu v Halle bolo vyrobených 8 kusov. V továrni Henschelu v Berlíne-Schönefelde postavili 73 kusov. V továrni HFB v Hamburgu postavili 149 kusov. Henschel taktiež vyrobil okolo 320 kusov Do 17Z, podielom 74 kusov prispela továreň HFB v Hamburgu a ďalších 73 kusov vyrobil Siebel. Neskôr bolo postavených 105 strojov verzie Dornier Do 215 v továrni v Oberpfaffenhofene.

    Do 19. septembra 1938 dostala Luftwaffe 579 Dornierov Do 17. Boli to hlavne stroje verzie Do 17E, F, M a P. V období rokov 1939 – 1940 bolo postavených 475 bombardérov Dornier Do 17Z, 16 prieskumných strojov a 9 nočných stíhačiek. V tom istom čase bolo taktiež postavených 100 kusov Dornieru Do 215, upravenej verzie Dornieru Do 17.

    Juhoslovanská výroba Upraviť

    Zahraničné vlády boli tiež zaujaté Dornierom Do 17. V júni 1936 si od Nemecka objednala juhoslovanská vláda 36 kusov Dornieru Do 17E. Rokovania o licencii boli dokončené 27. júna 1938 a zahŕňali právo na výrobu 36 kusov Dornieru Do 17Ka, s cenou 1 829 825 ríšskych mariek. Dňa 18. marca 1938 si Juhoslávia objednala 16 hotových Do 17Ka-2 a Ka-3, za cenu 3 316 788 ríšskych mariek. Posledné z týchto strojov dostali 21. apríla 1939. Stroje boli dokončené zo 72 – 96%.

    Dornier mal nedostatočný prísun nemeckého vybavenia, vrátane motorov. Juhoslovania našli francúzskeho výrobcu, ktorý mal dodať pohonné jednotky namiesto Nemcov. Vybraný výrobca motorov bola firma Gnome et Rhône a ich motor Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major mal byť použitý v Do 17. Francúzi však zveličili výkony motoru, pričom uvádzali, že má výkon 649 kW a rýchlosť 420 km/h vo výške 3 850 m. Vrtule s konštantnou rýchlosťou boli nekvalitné a dodané neskoro. To viedlo k súdom s firmami Piaggio Aero a Ratier. Len jeden Do 17 bol vybavený úplným nemeckým vybavením. Zvyšok Dornierov mal belgické 7,9 mm guľomety FN, české fotografické vybavenie a rádiové vybavenie firmy Telefunken. Celkom bolo v juhoslovanských továrniach vyrobených 70 kusov Do 17.

    Prvá jednotka v Luftwaffe vybavená Do 17 Upraviť

    Na konci roku 1936 sa začal masovo vyrábať Do 17E-1. Prvou jednotkou Luftwaffe, ktorá dostala tento bombardér bola KG 153 a KG 155. Prieskumná jednotka Aufklärungsgruppe (F)/122 začala s prezbrojením na Do 17F-1. Začiatkom roku 1937 sa sformovala KG 255 a bola vybavená strojmi Do 17E-1. Takmer 100 kusov bolo odoslaných do Španielska alebo stratených pri haváriách. Dňa 12. marca 1938 zhadzovali Do 17E, jednotky KG 155, pronacistické letáky nad Viedňou, ako prípravu na okupáciu mesta. KG 153 dostala svoj prvý Do 17E-1 dňa 20. septembra 1938, ako časť masového programu na prezbrojenie. Jednotka bola 1. mája 1939 premenovaná na KG 3. KG 155 sa prezbrojila na tento typ začiatkom roku 1938. KG 252 bola taktiež vybavená Do 17M, tentoraz aby bola pripravená čeliť Sudetskej kríze. Do decembra 1938 mala na stave 26 Do 17 a 17 posádok. Dňa 1. mája 1939 bola preznačená na Kampfgeschwader 2.

    Španielska občianska vojna Upraviť

    Svoj krst ohňom prežil Do 17 počas španielskej občianskej vojny (1936 – 1939), kde prevyšoval väčšinu nepriateľských stíhačiek a darilo sa mu dobre. Španieli mu dali prezývku „treska“. Začiatkom roku 1937 sa rozbehla masová výroba verzií Do 17E a Do 17F. Do 17F-1 mal nahradiť Heinkel He 70 v úlohe vysokoletiaceho prieskumného lietadla a Do 17E-1 mal nahradiť starnúce bombardéry, Heinkel He 111B, Légie Kondor. Ale ukázalo sa, že moderné sovietske stíhačky republikánskeho letectva sú schopné zachytiť Do 17E a F, čo prinútilo Dorniera k urýchlenému doplneniu obrannej výzbroje.

    Popri jednotkách nasadených na pomoc Frankovi bola aj 4.K/88 kapitána Rudolfa Freiherra Von Moreau. Erhard Milch, Ernst Udet a Albert Kesselring 6. januára 1937 rozhodli, že Légia Kondor by mala byť vybavená modernejšímí lietadlami. Krátko nato boli do Španielska odoslané Heinkely He 111B-1, Junkersy Ju 86D-1 a 12 kusov Dornierov Do 17E-1. Jednotka bola nazvaná VB/88 (Versuchsbomben Staffel, čiže experimentálna bombardovacia jednotka). Dorniery jednotky VB/88 boli súčasťou útoku na dedinu Guernica, pričom ich cieľom bol most. VB/88 zhodila 8 ton bômb, zatiaľ čo K/88 zhodila 37 ton, priamo nad mestom, spôsobiac tak smrť približne 1 500 ľudí. Bombardovanie VB/88 dosiahlo poškodenie mostu.

    Jediným ďalším cieľom nemeckých bombardérov v ten deň bola železničná stanica. Dňa 8. júla 1937 Dorniery podnikli niekoľko misií na ochranu nacionalistických vojsk, ktoré ohrozovali Madrid. V tom čase boli Junkersy Ju 86 stiahnuté a nahradené Do 17F. Na jar 1938 dorazila do Španielska ďalšia jednotka, vybavená Dorniermi Do 17, 1.A/88. Spolu bolo súčasťou Légie Kondor 27 strojov Do 17E, F a P.

    Poľské ťaženie Upraviť

    Séria nových strojov Do 17Z, znamenala zavedenie zväčšeného nosu a zvýšenie defenzívnej výzbroje, pričom v roku 1939 už bola široko dostupná v jednotkách. Počas prvej fázy druhej svetovej vojny tvoril Dornier Do 17 spolu s Heinkelom He 111 chrbticu bombardovacích jednotiek Luftwaffe.

    Od roku 1939 do roku 1940 používali Dornier Do 17 štyri bombardovacie skupiny Luftwaffe, ktorými boli: KG 2, KG 3, KG 76, KG 77. KG 76 a KG 77 používali Do 17E prvej generácie a zvyšné dve jednotky používali v čase vypuknutia vojny výhradne Do 17Z. Dňa 1. septembra 1939 bolo v bojovej pohotovosti 533 Dornierov a 705 Heinkelov. Celkový stav jednotiek Dornierov bol približne 100 kusov Do 17E-1, 32 kusov Do 17M-1 a 188 kusov Do 17Z-1 a Z-2, spolu s 213 kusmi Do 17P-1. Ich spoľahlivosť a robustnosť ich spravili v Luftwaffe vysoko populárnymi.

    Počas ťaženia sa Do 17 jednotky I./KG 2, zúčastnili Bitky o Bzuru, kde zhadzovali zápalné bomby proti poľským jednotkám, tvoreným armádou Poznaň a armádou Pomorze. Tieto nálety spôsobili veľký počet strát poľskej armáde, ktorá sa potom stiahla do husto zalesnenej oblasti, čo prispelo k ich zraniteľnosti. Dornier Do 17 si počínal dobre a mohol použiť svoju rýchlosť na odpútanie sa z boja s poľskými stíhačkami.

    Nórske ťaženie Upraviť

    Jedinou známou jednotkou zúčastnenou v nórskom ťažení bola prieskumná jednotka 1.(F)/120 (Aufklärungsgruppe). Operovala z letiska Lübeck/Blankensee v severnom Nemecku, až do okupácie Dánska potom čo Wehrmacht dobyl južné Nórsko sa 10. apríla 1940 premiestnila na letisko Stavanger. Jednotka v tom čase vybavená Dorniermi Do 17P-1 zabezpečovala prieskum nad nórskym pobrežím a Severným morom.

    Ťaženie na západe – 1940 Upraviť

    Prvým nemeckým lietadlom zostreleným nad Francúzskom počas vojny bol Dornier Do 17P, jednotky 2 (F) 123. Pripísal si ho pilot Mould, v stroji Hawker Hurricane z prvej squadrony RAF, 30. októbra 1939. Dornier s výrobným číslom Wrk Nr. 4414 skonštruovaný v továrni Blohm & Voss, sa zrútil blízko mesta Vassincourt, pričom zahynula celá trojčlenná posádka.

    Počas bitky o Francúzsko sa užitočnosť Do 17 zmenšila v dôsledku obmedzeného doletu a nosnosti. Napriek tomu bol stroj stále obľúbený u posádok, vďaka väčšej obratnosti než mal Heinkel He 111 alebo Junkers Ju 88 a taktiež vďaka dobrým charakteristikám pri útokoch z malých výšok. Jeden z takýchto náletov bol prevedený aj jednotkou KG 2, proti letisku kontrolovanom RAF vo Vraux, 10. mája. Bolo zničených 6 lietadiel Bristol Blenheim a dve lietadlá Fairey Battle, patriacich 114. squadrone RAF, a mnoho ďalších bolo poškodených. Napriek tomu však spojenecké stíhačky spôsobili jednotke KG 2 a KG 3 stratu 19 Dornierov Do 17.

    Iba 2 týždne pred začatím ťaženia trpeli KG 2 a 3 nedostatočným zásobovaním paliva, a tak boli Dorniery nečinné a niektoré útoky zrušené. Začiatkom júna sa jednotky Dornierov stretávali s čoraz menšou opozíciou a straty prudko klesli, keď prestala Armée de l'Air predstavovať hrozbu. Ale nad Dunkerqueom spôsobili stíhačky RAF nemeckým jednotkám ťažké straty. Dňa 2. júna Nemci prišli o 30 strojov, vrátane 16 kusov Do 17. Jednotky Dornierov zhodili spolu 320 ton bômb.

    Bitka o Britániu Upraviť

    Počas poľského ťaženia mohol Do 17Z vďaka svojej rýchlosti 427 km/h zostať v bezpečnej vzdialenosti od poľských stíhačiek a ľahký pancier bol účinný. Taktiež sa s úspechom zúčastnil bitky o Francúzsko a straty boli relatívne nízke, no pri stretnutiach s britskými stíhačkami sa ukázal ako pomalý a zraniteľný. V bitke o Britániu sa ukázalo, že rýchle dobre vyzbrojené a ľahké jednoplošné stíhačky zmenili rovnováhu síl medzi bombardérmi a stíhačkami jednoznačne v prospech posledne menovaných. Pri prvých náletoch utrpel Do 17 veľké straty.

    Pretože motor Bramo 323 Fafnir bol určený na použitie v malých výškach, Luftwaffe reagovala nasadením jednotiek Do 17 vo viacerých hromadných misiách, kde leteli tesne nad zemou, v snahe vyhnúť sa tak nepriateľským stíhačkám. V porovnaní s Heinkelom He 111 bol Do 17 obratnejší a robustnejšie hviezdicové motory boli ideálne na útoky z malých výšok, pričom niektoré stroje boli osadené 20 mm kanónom. V tom čase sa začal hromadne dostávať do služby nový Junkers Ju 88, nahrádzajúc Do 17 vo väčších výškach. Naopak, Dornier vynikal v prízemných útokoch, ale to bolo čoraz ďalej nebezpečnejšie.

    Výhoda Dornieru v nízkych výškach sa ukázala byť diskutabilnou 7. septembra 1940, keď Luftwaffe prešla k celkovému bombardovaniu Londýna zo stredných výšok. Straty sa zvyšovali a 15. septembra 1940 prišli tri bojové skupiny vybavené Do 17, o 23 zostrelených a 13 poškodených lietadiel. Medzi zostrelenými strojmi bol aj známy Dornier Do 17 Z-2, s označením F1+FH patriaci jednotke KG 76, ktorého časť spadla na nádvorie Victoria Station a vyústil v blahoprajnú nótu holandskej kráľovnej Wilhelmíny, ktorá bola svedkyňou udalosti.

    Významná udalosť sa odohrala 15. septembra 1940, dnes známym ako „deň Bitky o Britániu“. Medzi zostrelenými nemeckými strojmi bol aj Dornier Do 17 F1+FS, nájdený v poli blízko Shorehamu. Ukázalo sa, že Dornier bol vybavený plameňometom, inštalovaným v chvoste stroja. V trupe boli valce s dusíkom, vodíkom a olejom a výstupná tryska bola osadená turbínou. Najprv sa usúdilo, že to bolo zariadenie na produkciu dymu, imitujúceho poškodenie. No neskôr sa zistilo, že zariadenie bolo spúšťané jedným z zadných strelcov, s cieľom zničiť prenasledujúcej stíhačky zo zadnej sféry. Ale nedostatok kyslíku znamenal, že zariadenie zlyhalo a vyšiel z neho len nepretržitý prúd oleja.

    Straty Do 17 v auguste a septembri boli značné. V auguste 1940 bolo stratených 54 Dornierov a ďalších 20 odpísaných, v dôsledku technických problémov a nehôd. V septembri bolo stratených ďalších 50 strojov, spolu s 31 ks Do 17 a ich posádkami nezvestnými. V októbri Luftwaffe stratila 35 strojov. Dodatočná výzbroj ôsmich guľometov nainštalovaných na zlepšenie obrany sa ukázala ako neschopná odraziť útoky stíhačiek.

    Boje pokračovali do októbra, kedy sa Luftwaffe koncentrovala na nočné útoky, ktoré vykonávali jednotky vybavené Heinkelmi He 111 a Junkersmi Ju 88, ktoré mali väčšiu nosnosť a vyššiu rýchlosť. Straty Do 17 v Bitke o Britániu boli stanovené medzi 132 a 171, čo je najnižšie percento zo všetkých troch typov nemeckých bombardérov.

    Po zavedení Junkersu Ju 88 a zaradenia produkcie nového Dornieru Do 217, boli dni Do 17 zrátané, a výroba sa zastavila v polovici roku 1940. Aj napriek ukončeniu výroby sa Dornier zúčastnil vo väčšom množstve v bojoch po Bitke o Britániu, v Balkánskom ťažení, operácii Barbarossa a s inými štátmi Osi.

    Balkánske ťaženie Upraviť

    Najprv pronemecká Juhoslávia vyzerala byť pripravená pripojiť sa k štátom Osi, no vojenský puč zvrhol vládu a vyhlásil neutralitu. Rozhnevaný Hitler prikázal dobyť Juhosláviu útokom. Juhoslovania si na konci roka 1940 objednali dvadsať Do 17 Ka-2. Tieto stroje sa líšili od nemeckých Dornierov osaedenými motormi, ktorými boli francúzske Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major a ďalšie odlišnosti zahŕňali zahraničné prístroje a zbrane. V roku 1940 postavili Juhoslovania 50 ks týchto strojov v licencii, no väčšina bola stratená počas ťaženia.

    Na inváziu do Juhoslávie, Luftwaffe nasadila Luftflotte 4. Tá zahŕňala jednotky KG 2 a KG 3, ktoré boli jedinými zo 7 skupín, vyzbrojenými Do 17. V rámci týchto jednotiek bolo nasadených okolo 110 ks Dornieru Do 17. Prvé útoky na Belehrad sa začali o 6:51 ráno, 6. apríla 1941. Medzi nemeckými bombardérmi bolo aj 102 Dornierov Do 17, ktoré niesli 18 ks 50 kg trieštivých bômb. Po prvom dni zostalo v prevádzke okolo 82 ks Do 17, pričom jednotky utrpeli len jedinú stratu: stroj jednotky KG 3, s výrobným číslom WNr 2563 5K+DS. Luftwaffe a jej Dorniery sa nad Juhosláviou ocitli v rovnakej situácii ako nad Gréckom, s malým odporom vo vzduchu. Jednotka KG 2 sa zúčastnila aj bojov o Krétu. Medzi 6. aprílom a 31. májom stratila jednotka I./KG 2 šesť Do 17 a sedem bolo poškodených. V tom istom čase hlásila jednotka III./KG 3 šesť strát a päť poškodených strojov. Táto jednotka sa taktiež zúčastnila na útokoch na Krétu a Grécko.

    Východný front Upraviť

    Po úspešnom zakončení Balkánskeho ťaženia sa začala Luftwaffe pripravovať na operáciu Barbarossa, inváziu do Sovietskeho zväzu. V tom čase sa bojové skupiny už väčšinou prezbrojili na Junkers Ju 88 a Do 17 hral len malú úlohu. Boli nasadené len 2 prieskumné letky vybavené Dorniermi. Jednotka KG 2, ostala jedinou plne operačnou zložkou Luftwaffe, vybavenou Dorniermi. Najvýznamnejšia akcia Do 17 na Východnom fronte sa udiala 23. – 24. júna pri Grodne. Veliteľ sovietskeho západného frontu, armádny generál Dimitrij Pavlov, sa pokúsil o protiútok proti skupine Panzergruppe 3, ktorej velil Hermann Hoth. Nadvláda vo vzduchu a takmer žiaden vzdušný odpor, umožnili Dornierom Do 17 jednotky III./KG 2, zničiť kolóny sovietskej pechoty. S pomocou iných jednotiek, Luftwaffe hlásila zničenie 105 sovietskych tankov. Sovietsky 6. a 11. mechanizovaný zbor, spolu s 6. zborom kavalérie bolo zničených. Za mimoriadnu úspešnosť, dostal veliteľ 9./KG 2, Walter Bradel rytiersky kríž k železnému krížu.

    Obmedzenia Do 17 v podobe krátkeho doletu a malej nosnosti sa opäť prejavili aj na východnom fronte. Rozloha nového dejiska bojov znamenala ďalšie zníženie bojovej hodnoty stroja a tak v bol v priebehu roka 1941 postupne vyradený z úlohy bombardéra. Zvyšné stroje boli použité na testovanie nových technológií a na nácvik v leteckých školách, zatiaľ čo ostatné boli odovzdané spriateleným krajinám, v priebehu nasledujúcich dvoch rokov.

    Celkové straty KG 2 na východnom fronte v roku 1941 zahŕňali 3 zostrelené Do 17 v júni, 9 v júli a 9 v auguste, jeden Do 17 zničený na zemi v septembri a 3 v októbri. Koncom októbra bola jednotka prevelená na preškolenie sa na Junkers Ju 88. Napriek tomu sa Do 17 zúčastnil bojov s vzdušnými silami iných národov, po prechode Luftwaffe na Junkers Ju 88. Najmenej 5 ks prežilo koniec vojny vo Fínskych vzdušných silách z celkového počtu 15 ks, ktoré dostali Fíni od Nemcov tieto potom slúžili aj po vojne, až kým neboli v roku 1952 zošrotované.

    Nočný stíhač Upraviť

    Počas kampane na obranu ríše, bol Do 17 až do roku 1944 nasadený tiež ako nočná stíhačka. Najmenej desať Do 17Z bolo upravených, pričom jeden Do 17Z-7 a deväť Do 17Z-10 slúžilo takmer 2 roky v úlohe nočnej stíhačky, pričom boli zaradené v obrannom systéme vytvorenom Josefom Kammhuberom, ktorý bol známy ako „Kammhuberova línia“. Posádkami bol však považovaný za menejcenný v porovnaní s Junkersom Ju 88C. V tejto úlohe slúžil taktiež Do 215. Napriek tomu na Do 17 a Do 215 lietalo niekoľko nočných stíhacích es, ako napríklad Helmut Wolterdorf. Všetky zvyšné Do 17Z-10 boli stiahnuté z prvej línie počas leta 1942. Boli buď použité na náhradné diely alebo preradené do leteckých škôl nočných stíhačov.

    Ťahač klzákov Upraviť

    Po stiahnutí z bojových operácii boli Do 17 od začiatku roka 1942 preradené na ťahanie klzákov so zásobami. Prvá výsadková skupina (I./Luftlandegeschwader – LLG) 1, dorazila príliš neskoro, aby mohla zásobovať obkľúčených Nemcov v Stalingradskom kotle, no pomohli pri zásobovaní 17. armády, ktorá sa stiahla na Kubáň začiatkom roka 1943. Zásoby boli dodané klzákmi DFS 230. Medzi 29. januárom a 30. marcom 1943 bolo pri týchto operáciách stratených 5 Dornierov Do 17.V priebehu októbra 1943 pomohla Luftlandegeschwader 1 zásobovať a čiastočne evakuovať nemeckú 17. armádu z Kubáne. Začiatkom roka 1945 bolo v jednotkách Schleppgruppen 1 a 2 stále ešte niekoľko strojov Do 17.

    Dňa 10. júla 1943, zhromaždila jednotka I./LLG 1 na svojej základni Lézignan-Corbières vo Francúzsku 52 ks Dornierov Do 17 a 136 ks klzákov DFS 230. Dňa 10. novembra 1943 mala na svojej základni v Štrasburgu 36 ks Do 17 a 195 ks DFS 230, no len 14 ks Do 17 a 12 ks DFS 230 bolo letuschopných. Dňa 21. júla 1944 dotiahli Do 17 dva letky of I./LLG 1 s vojakmi nad plošinu Vercors, kde francúzske hnutie odporu vyhlásilo Vercorskú republiku. Do 1. septembra 1944 sa I./LLG 1 vrátila na svoju základňu v Štrasburgu, no ostalo jej len 20 ks Do 17 a tak bola zanedlho rozpustená.

    Juhoslovanské kráľovské vojenské letectvo Upraviť

    Po začiatku nemeckej invázie Juhoslávie vlastnilo Juhoslovanské kráľovské vojenské letectvo (JKRV) približne 60 ks Dornieru Do 17K, ktoré tvorili 3 bombardovacie regimenty. Pozostávalo z dvoch skupín: 63. bombardovacia skupina so základňou na letisku Petrovac pri Skopje a 64. bombardovacia skupina, so základňou na letisku Milševo pri Prištine. Počas bojov sa podarilo továrni v Kraljeve vyrobiť ďalšie 3 stroje. Dva kusy boli doručené JKRV dňa 10. apríla a jeden kus dňa 12. apríla 1941. Počas prvého útoku sa podarilo Luftwaffe zničiť 26 juhoslovanských Dornierov.

    Celkové juhoslovanské straty boli 4 ks Do 17 zničených vo vzdušnom boji a 45 zničených na zemi. Medzi 14. a 15. aprílom preletelo sedem Do 17 na letisko Nikšić a zúčastnilo sa evakuácie kráľa Petra II. a členov juhoslovanskej vlády do Grécka. Počas týchto operácií boli taktiež premiestnené juhoslovanské zlaté rezervy do Grécka, ktoré tam previezlo sedem Do 17. Po splnení úlohy bolo 5 ks Do 17 zničených pri talianskom útoku na leteckú základňu Paramithia v Grécku. Len dvom Do 17Kb-1 sa podarilo prežiť a neskôr sa pripojili k RAF v Egypte, kde im boli pridelené čísla AX707 a AX706. Ale oba stroje boli zničené pri leteckom útoku 27. augusta 1941. V tom čase bolo zaznamenané, že 2 Dorniery ušli do Sovietskeho zväzu. Podľa iných zdrojov prežilo aprílové útoky 23 juhoslovanských Dornierov a RAF dostala tretí stroj.

    Bulharské vzdušné sily Upraviť

    Bulharské vzdušné sily dostali 11 kusov Do 17M-1 a P-1 v roku 1940. Po ich nasadení v Balkánskom ťažení proti Juhoslávii a Grécku dostali Bulhari 15 koristných juhoslovanských Do 17Kb-1. Táto dodávka zahŕňala náhradné diely, motory a podvozky. Dorniery boli začlenené do prvej letky 5. bombardovacieho regimentu. V Bulharskej okupačnej zóne Juhoslávie vykonávali Do 17 misie proti juhoslovanským četníkom a partizánom medzi rokmi 1941 – 1944. Taktiež podporovali chorvátske sily v tej istej úlohe. V roku 1943 dostali ďalších šesť Do 17M.

    V septembri 1944 Bulhari zmenili strany a vyhlásili vojnu bývalému spojencovi, Nemecku. V tom čase mali dvadsať Do 17 rôznych typov, ktoré patrili 1./5. bombardovacieho regimentu a 5 Do 17P patriacich prieskumnej jednotke 3./1. a ďalšie 4 ks patriace prieskumnej letke ďalekého doletu. Počas 71 dní operácií proti nemeckým silám stratili Bulhari 32 strojov. Pri 362 bojových misiách piloti zničili 173 nákladných áut, 42 vagónov, sedem obrnených vozidiel a 10 lietadiel, no skutočné nemecké straty boli ďaleko od týchto údajov. Bulhari podcenili spôsobenú škodu, ktorá bola ďaleko väčšia než uvedené údaje. Okrem Do 17, patriacich prieskumnej jednotke ďalekého doletu, zvyšné Do 17 sa po 2. decembri nepodieľali na misiách proti silám Osi. Po vojne sa do Juhoslávie vrátili 4 ks Do 17, ako súčasť vojnových reparácií. Ich ďalší osud je neznámy.

    Letectvo Nezávislého štátu Chorvátsko Upraviť

    Po nemeckej invázii Juhoslávie bol v apríli 1941 sformovaný Nezávislý chorvátsky štát. Chorváti vytvorili 27. júna 1941 jednotku, nazývanú Hrvatska zrakoplovna legija, ktorej úlohou bol boj proti Sovietskemu zväzu. Jednotka mala 160 letcov, ktorí boli vycvičení v nemeckých leteckých školách, ako napríklad v Kampffliegerschule 3 na Balte, kde cvičili na Do 17Z. Dňa 31. októbra 1941 bola jednotka priradená k Kampfgeschwader 3, ako jednotka 10.(kroatisch)/KG 3, a dostala 15 ks Do 17Z, pričom pôsobila na východnom fronte. Jednotka neutrpela až do 1. decembra 1941, počas Bitky o Moskvu, žiadne straty. Do svojho stiahnutia späť do Chorvátska, vo februári 1942, si jednotka pripísala 366 bojových vzletov, 71 útokov z nízkych výšok, 4 zničené dediny, 173 budov, 276 vozidiel zničených a 11 zostrelených lietadiel. V júli 1942 bola na východný front odoslaná ďalšia jednotka, ktorá používala Nemcami vlastnené Do 17Z a bola označená ako 15.(kroat.)/KG 53. V novembri 1942 bola stiahnutá do Chorvátska.

    Počet Do 17, ktoré sa zúčastnilo bojov v chorvátskych jednotkách je ťažko určiť. Chorvátske letky tvorili súčasť nemeckých bojových jednotiek, rovnako ako ich vlastné nezávislé jednotky a taktiež je nejasné, koľko strojov sa vrátilo späť do Chorvátska, ak vôbec nejaké. V januári 1942 bolo Chorvátsku podarovaných 11 Do 17Ka. Bolo taktiež prisľúbených 6 ks Do 17 z Luftwaffe, no podľa jedného zdroja neboli nikdy dodané a podľa iného zdroja bolo 6 Do 17E dodaných v roku 1942. Dňa 23. septembra 1942 alebo v marci 1943 bolo Chorvátskom zakúpených ďalších 30 ks Do 17E a 30 bolo sľúbených, no nikdy nedodaných. V novembri 1943 bol schválený nákup 79 ks Do 17Z, no stroje opäť nikdy neboli dodané. V decembri 1943 tvorili 1. a 2. bombardovacia squadrona časť Chorvátskej leteckej légie a mali dosiahnuť veľkosť skupiny vo februári 1944. Či sa to podarilo, ostáva nejasné.

    Dňa 30. júla 1944 pristál núdzovo v Cerignole, južne od Foggie v Taliansku, Do 17Z-5, s označením Z8+AH, jednotky Kroat. KGr 1. Neskôr v roku 1944 bol juhoslovanskými partizánmi ukoristený Do 17F-1 a bol preletený na Bari v Taliansku, ktorý bol obsadený britskými silami, no toto tvrdenie sa ukázalo ako nepodložené. Jeden zo zdrojov hovorí, že v spojencami okupovanom Taliansku pristáli spolu až 3 Do 17 jeden Do 17Z – 13. júla 1944, skôr spomínaný Do 17Z-5 30. júla 1944 a ďalší Do 17Z – 10. augusta 1944.

    Fínske vzdušné sily Upraviť

    V novembri 1941 sa ríšsky maršal Hermann Göring rozhodol darovať 15 Dornierov Do 17Z fínskym vzdušným silám. Tieto stroje boli pridelené 46. Squadrone. Fíni svoje Do 17 použili väčšinou pri nočných náletoch a proti ľahším cieľom na fronte, pretože boli považované za zastarané, ich stúpavosť a rýchlosť boli podľa štandardov z roku 1942 považované za nedostatočné. Vo fínskom letectve spolu slúžilo 15 kusov Do 17 (tri Do 17Z-1, tri Do 17Z-2 a deväť Do 17Z-3). Desať strojov bolo stratených medzi januárom 1943 a januárom 1945, pričom zvyšných 5 bolo zošrotovaných až v roku 1952.

    Rumunské kráľovské letectvo Upraviť

    Medzi aprílom a májom 1942 bolo Rumunskému kráľovskému letectvu dodaných 10 Dornierov Do 17M a boli priradené k Escadrile 2 na prieskumné misie.

      dostali jedenásť Do 17M a P v roku 1940 a najmenej jedenásť ex- juhoslovanských strojov v roku 1941. Ďalších šesť strojov bolo dodaných v roku 1943. Zostali v službe až do roku 1945.
      dostalo najmenej 15 Do 17Z v roku 1941, jedenásť ex- juhoslovanských Do 17Ka a ďalších 30 alebo 36 ks Do 17E v roku 1942.
    • Regia Aeronautica (Talianske kráľovské letectvo) používalo najmenej jeden Do 17 zaradený v jednotke 1° Centro Sperimentale v Guidonii, kde bol skúšaný až do septembra 1943.
      dostali stroje vyradené z Légie Kondor – Do 17E, F a P a 13 zostalo v službe po konci Španielskej občianskej vojny.
      zaradila do služby 2 juhoslovanské Do 17K, ktoré utiekli z Juhoslávie, vezúc Kráľa Petra a zlato. Stroje dostali sériové čísla AX707 a 707. Obe lietadlá boli zničené pri leteckom útoku na letisko Ismaïlia dňa 27. augusta 1941.
      používali najmenej jeden Do 17E-1, WkNr 2095. Premenovaný na Axis Sally bol odvezený do Spojených Štátov po vojne a testovaný.

    Až doteraz sa verilo, že sa nezachoval žiaden z dvojmotorových bombardovacích Dornierov. V septembri 2007 sa našiel takmer celý Do 215 B-5 (verzia Dornieru Do 17Z), v plytkých vodách Waddenzee v Holandsku. Rôzne veľké kusy strojov Do 17, boli taktiež uchované v rôznych múzeách a súkromných zbierkach po celom svete.

    Dňa 3. septembra 2010 bolo oznámené, že bol objavený Do 17, ležiaci v hĺbke 15 m, pri pobreží Anglicka. Lietadlo bolo objavené v Goodwin Sands v Kente v septembri 2008, no ostalo dôkladne stráženým tajomstvom. Dornier Do 17Z-2, výrobného čísla WrkNr 1160, bol používaný 7. Staffel, III. Gruppe jednotky Kampfgeschwader 3. Bol súčasťou náletu KG 2 a KG 3, pri bombardovaní letiska RAF Debden a RAF Hornchurch, dňa 26. augusta 1940. Núdzovo pristál počas náletu. V júni 2010 boli uskutočnené potápacie aktivity v okolí stroja. Bolo zistené, že lietadlo je takmer v celku, chýba len časť smerového kormidla, stabilizátor, predná zasklená časť nosu, dvierka podvozku a kryt motora. Royal Air Force Museum plánuje vyzdvihhnúť vrak na jar 2011. Prebiehajú práce na zabránenie ďalšieho poškodenia Dornieru. Po vytiahnutí bude zrekonštruovaný na základni RAF v Cosforde a vystavený v múzeu v Hendone.