Southern Egypt/Nubia Map

Southern Egypt/Nubia Map


Southern Egypt/Nubia Map - History

Map of Ancient Nubia

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Map of Nubia in Ancient Egypt

During the time of Moses and the Exodus the land of Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was the northern region closer to the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile Delta.

The Nile Delta was a triangular area of marshland about 150 miles from north to south, from Memphis to the Mediterranean, and about 150 - 200 miles wide.

Upper Egypt was a bit further south from Lower Egypt, starting at Memphis (bottom of the Nile Delta Triangle) and extended for about 600 miles down the Nile River Valley to Elephantine (Aswan). Nubia was much farther south, and the Greeks and Romans described Nubia as "Ethiopia" and the Hebrews referred to Nubia as "Cush", the land south of Egypt.

Number 12:1 - And Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married: for he had married an Ethiopian woman.

Genesis 10:8 - And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Exodus 14:1-2 - And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.

Exodus 14:21-22 - And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

Ethiopia in Smith's Bible Dictionary

Ethiopia
(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia, and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. Eze 29:10 The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. Ge 10:6 They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour's birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in Ac 8:27

Cush in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

4. The Ethiopian Cush:
(3) The well-known country of Cush or Ethiopia, from Syene (Ezek 29:10) southward--Egyptian Kos, Babylonian Kusu, Assyrian Kusu. This name sometimes denotes the land (Isa 11:11 18:1 Zeph 3:10 Ezek 29:10 Job 28:19 Est 1:1 8:9) sometimes the peopl (Isa 20:4 Jer 46:9 Ezek 38:5) but is in many passages uncertain. Notwithstanding that the descendants of Ham are always regarded as non-Semites, the Ethiopians, Ge`ez, as they called themselves, spoke a Semitic language of special interest on account of its likeness to Himyaritic, and its illustration of certain forms in Assyro-Babylonian. These Cushites were in all probability migrants from another (more northerly) district, and akin to the Canaanites--like them, dark, but by no means black, and certainly not Negroes. W. Max Muller (Asien und Europa, 113 note) states that it cannot be proved whether the Egyptians had quite black neighbors (on the South). In earlier times they are represented as brown, and later as brown mingled with black, implying that negroes only came to their knowledge as a distinct and extensive race in comparatively late times. Moses' (first?) wife (Nu 12:1) was certainly therefore not a Negress, but simply a Cushite woman, probably speaking a Semitic language--prehistoric Ge`ez or Ethiopian (see CUSHITE WOMAN). In all probability Semitic tribes were classed as Hamitic simply because they acknowledged the supremacy of the Hamitic Egyptians, just as the non-Sem Elamites were set down as Semites (Gen 10:22) on account of their acknowledging Babylonian supremacy. It is doubtful whether the Hebrews, in ancient times, knew of the Negro race--they probably became acquainted with them long after the Egyptians. Full Article

Cush in Smith's Bible Dictionary

Cush (2)
The name of a son of Ham, apparently the eldest, and of a territory or territories occupied by his descendants. The Cushites appear to have spread along tracts extending from the higher Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. History affords many traces of this relation of Babylonia, Arabia and Ethiopia. Full Article

Cush
The name given this civilization comes from the Old Testament where Cush (Hebrew: כוש) was one of the sons of Ham (Genesis 10:6) who settled in Northeast Africa. In the Bible and at different times in the ancient world, a large region covering northern Sudan, modern day southern Egypt, and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia was known as "Cush". The Hebrew Bible refers to "Cush" on a number of occasions, though various English translations translate this as "Nubian", "Ethiopia", "Sudan", and "Cushite" (Unseth 1999). Moses wife, Tzipporah, is described as a Kushite in the book of Numbers 12:1. Some contend that this Cush was in southern Arabia. See Biblical Cush for a full discussion. All of this is complicated by the fact that the Septuagint translated "Cush" as "Aethiopia", leading to the misleading conclusion that "Cush" should be equated with the borders of present day "Ethiopia". Cain Hope Felder, in the introduction to his The Original African Heritage Study Bible has argued that "Cush" should always be translated as simply "Africa". Full Article

The Bible Mentions "Cush" Many Times

Genesis 10:7 - And the sons of Cush Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah Sheba, and Dedan.

1 Chronicles 1:9 - And the sons of Cush Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah Sheba, and Dedan.

The Bible Mentions "Ethiopia" Many Times

Esther 8:9 - Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

Isaiah 45:14 - Thus saith the LORD, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, [saying], Surely God [is] in thee and [there is] none else, [there is] no God.

Ezekiel 30:4 - And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down.

Esther 1:1 - Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)

Isaiah 37:9 - And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard [it], he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying,

Ezekiel 29:10 - Behold, therefore I [am] against thee, and against thy rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste [and] desolate, from the tower of Syene even unto the border of Ethiopia.

Acts 8:27 - And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship,

Isaiah 20:3 - And the LORD said, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years [for] a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia

Isaiah 43:3 - For I [am] the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt [for] thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

Ezekiel 30:5 - Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.

2 Kings 19:9 - And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying,

Psalms 87:4 - I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia this [man] was born there.

Zephaniah 3:10 - From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia my suppliants, [even] the daughter of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.

Job 28:19 - The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, neither shall it be valued with pure gold.

Isaiah 20:5 - And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their glory.

Nahum 3:9 - Ethiopia and Egypt [were] her strength, and [it was] infinite Put and Lubim were thy helpers.

Genesis 2:13 - And the name of the second river [is] Gihon: the same [is] it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.

Psalms 68:31 - Princes shall come out of Egypt Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.

Isaiah 18:1 - Woe to the land shadowing with wings, which [is] beyond the rivers of Ethiopia:


The slaves of Nubia

Checking off another item on the racial wokeness to-do list, Boston's Public Improvement Commission on Thursday voted to change the name of Dudley Square in the city's Roxbury neighborhood to Nubian Square. The new name, reported the Boston Globe on Friday, is intended to evoke "the strength and skill of the ancient Nubian Empire, one of the earliest civilizations in Africa." The old designation, which honored colonial Governor Thomas Dudley, had to go because "many supporters of the name change say that . . . Dudley perpetuated slavery."

In reality, as the Globe story noted, there is no evidence that Dudley ever owned slaves, and "his role in the promotion of slavery is somewhat murky."

Byron Rushing, a former president of both the Roxbury Historical Society and Boston's Museum of African American History, says that no proof exists that Dudley had anything to do with slavery, and that it amounts to "lying about history" to claim otherwise. "I've really searched, and I've found no evidence that Dudley ever owned slaves," Rushing told the Globe's Brian MacQuarrie . As for claims that the colonial governor encouraged slaveholding, Rushing says the opposite is closer to the truth. In 1641, Dudley signed a document called the "Body of Liberties," which had been drafted by the General Court. It was a remarkable charter of individual freedoms, unique to the New World. (Four decades later it would be revoked by England's King Charles II.) Among its many provisions was one that significantly restricted slavery:

91. There shall never be any bond slavery, villeinage, or Captivity amongst us unless it be lawful Captives taken in just wars, and such strangers as willingly sell themselves or are sold to us. And these shall have all the liberties and Christian usages which the law of God . . . concerning such persons doth morally require. This exempts none from servitude who shall be Judged thereto by Authority.

So the idea that Dudley's name must be removed from Roxbury's commercial center out of a proper sensitivity to the history of slavery is more than a little foolish and ahistorical.

On the other hand, Dudley's reputation isn't in any danger. One of the most influential personages in early Massachusetts, he served as the colony's second governor. He was also a founder of Harvard College, he helped establish the Roxbury Latin School, he picked the spot for the creation of what became Cambridge, and he was the father of Anne Bradstreet , America's first woman of letters and a poet of such renown that her poems were included in the library of King George III. Though the square in Roxbury may no longer bear his name, the avenue running through it — Dudley Street — does, as do the nearby bus station, a Harvard residence hall, and a town in central Massachusetts.

Even if you accept the contention of Roxbury activists that Dudley's name had to be scrapped from the square because that 17th-century Puritan maybe, sorta-kinda, allegedly had a connection to slavery, how in the world is "Nubian" an improvement?

Slavery was not only practiced in Nubia, it was a well-established element of its foreign trade and diplomacy. Here, for example, is anthropologist and archaeologist William Y. Adams, winner of the African Studies Association's prestigious Herskovits Prize for his scholarship on Nubian history (boldface added):

The Ballana royal tombs [in southern Nubia], excavated in the 1930s, contained an immense wealth of jewelry, furniture, and weaponry, as well as sacrificed animals and slaves. . . . [T]he Baqt treaty, ne­gotiated between the rulers of Makouria [a Nubian kingdom] and the Muslim Emirs of Egypt in the year 652. . . . Under terms of the treaty the political and religious autono­my of the Nubians were guaranteed, provided that they made an annual pay­ment of slaves and other goods to the Is­lamic Governor at Aswan, guaranteed safety of Egyptian merchants traveling to Nobatia, and returned any runaway slaves from Egypt. . . .

Trade with Egypt evidently flourished . . . during nearly the whole of the medieval period. The main exports were slaves and dates while the Nubians received in exchange wine, textiles, and luxury goods of glass, glazed pottery, and bronze.

In its Nubia Gallery, the Oriental Institute Museum in Chicago makes the same point:

The Baqt [treaty] regulated trade relations between Christian Nubia and Islamic Egypt for almost 600 years. Aswan and Qasr Ibrim were the centers for this trade, which focused on gold, ivory, and slaves, exchanged for Egyptian textiles, ceramics, and glass.

A long Wikipedia entry on "Slavery in Sudan" summarizes the slavery that was common in ancient Nubia, and notes too that slavery in that region, as in much of Arab-ruled Africa, is endemic even now. If, out of horror at the memory of slavery, the name of the main square in Roxbury had to be changed, how could anyone think "Nubian" would be a change for the better? To repeat: Slavery exists in Nubia — aka Sudan — today. The victims are frequently black African Christians abducted from the south.

"One 11-year-old Christian boy told me about his first days in captivity," reported Michael Rubin, a scholar at the Washington Institute, in an essay for The Wall Street Journal.

"I was told to be a Muslim several times, and I refused, which is why they cut off my finger." Twelve-year-old Alokor Ngor Deng was taken as a slave in 1993. She has not seen her mother since the slave raiders sold the two to different masters. Thirteen-year-old Akon was seized by Sudanese military while in her village five years ago. She was gang-raped by six government soldiers, and witnessed seven executions before being sold to a Sudanese Arab.

Many freed slaves bore signs of beatings, burnings and other tortures. More than three-quarters of formerly enslaved women and girls reported rapes.

It is that record of slavery both ancient and modern that led the Bay State Banner — Boston's storied African-American newspaper — to oppose the name change for Dudley Square. "The Nubians also had slaves," the paper observed last year. "In fact, the Nubians have become mixed with other ethnic groups in Sudan, and they still have slaves today."

Ah, but racial-identity politics are in the saddle and ride mankind, to paraphrase Emerson, and once the forces of political correctness decided that Dudley Square must become Nubian Square, nothing could be allowed to interfere. Not even an election: A clear majority of voters — 54% — rejected the name change on an advisory ballot question in Boston last November. Nevertheless, Mayor Marty Walsh made it clear that he expected the commission, over which he has ultimate authority, to approve the redesignation, on the grounds that the ballot measure was strongly supported in Roxbury.

"This square will be called Nubian Square," the mayor said last week. "The voters voted it."

I think we can assume Walsh doesn't really take that logic seriously. For if he really believed that citywide election results should be overridden in neighborhoods where voters dissent, he wouldn't expect to be called "Mr. Mayor" when he's in Roxbury and Jamaica Plain. After all, those sections of the city supported challenger Tito Jackson in the last mayoral election.

All of this is beside the point, of course. Election results and Nubian history and the truth about Dudley are of no importance to the woke activists. Neither are the objections of Rushing or the Bay State Banner. Roxbury's square has been renamed because it makes some people feel that they have accomplished meaningful change and expressed racial pride. What a meager substitute for real achievement.

'What candle is it today?'

I wrote at length about the history of Chanukah in last week's Arguable, and wasn't planning to mention the holiday again. But I happened to come across a memorable true story told by Yuli Edelstein, the current speaker of Israel's parliament, called the Knesset. He was speaking to students at a school in Beitar Illit, a town in the Judean Hills southwest of Jerusalem.

Yuli Edelstein, a former prisoner in the Soviet gulag, is today the speaker of the Israeli Knesset.

Edelstein was one of the most prominent "refuseniks" in the old Soviet Union — Jews who were persecuted by the Communist government in the 1970s and 1980s when they sought permission to emigrate to Israel. Edelstein, still in his teens, was expelled from university when he applied for an exit visa. When he refused to abandon his Zionist activities, he was arrested and eventually prosecuted on trumped-up drug charges. On December 19, 1984, he was sentenced to three years at a forced labor camp in the Siberian gulag.

"After three months of being in a dungeon," Edelstein told the students, "I came to the court for sentencing. The hall was full of police and security personnel. Normally, relatives were allowed to come to hear the trial, but they filled all the seats with security personnel so my family had nowhere to sit. Only my wife and mother managed to get in.

After the verdict, Edelstein was surrounded by police officers. On the way out, he somehow managed to push his head through the security ring. He had one thing to say to his wife, whom he had not seen for three months, knowing it could be a few years before he would see her again. What was so important for him to shout to her?

"Tanya, what candle is it today?" She didn't understand what he was talking about. He shouted again, "What candle is it today?"

Only after the third time did she realize what he meant. She shouted back: "Tonight we will light the second candle!" It was the first morning of Chanukah [and two flames would be lit that night].

Edelstein did not have a calendar in the dungeon. But he had heard the date in court, and calculated that it must be Chanukah.

That evening, Edelstein somehow found two matches and lit them. "And so," he told the young students in Beitar Illit, "I stood there in front of the window for a few seconds until the matches scorched my fingers. It was perhaps the shortest 'candle' lit in history. I don't even know if I fulfilled the mitzvah [the religious obligation to light a Chanukah candle]. But that night, a little bit of light pushed away a lot of darkness."

Edelstein remained in the gulag until 1987. He emigrated to Israel in 1987, and entered politics nine years later. In 2013, he was elected by a large majority of his colleagues to be the Speaker of the Knesset, and has served in that post ever since.

If only the Times had been right

Ninety-five years ago this past weekend, in a story published on Dec. 21, 1924, the New York Times reported that Adolf Hitler, the former "demi-god of the reactionary extremists" in Germany, had been released from prison. Hitler had served just nine months of the five-year term to which he had been sentenced after his "Beer Hall Putsch" in Munich — the attempt by his Nazi Party to seize power by force.

The Times reported that Hitler "looked a much sadder and wiser man." He "was no longer to be feared," the paper's sources said, and was expected to "retire to private life" in Austria.

It wasn't the first time the Times had badly misreported the Hitler phenomenon and it certainly wouldn't be the last. Hitler did not fade away quietly to the Austrian countryside in 1924. Seven months after the Times reported that he had been "tamed," he published Mein Kampf . Seven years later, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag. In 1933, Hitler became Germany's chancellor.

(Jeff Jacoby is a columnist for The Boston Globe).

Related Topics: History, Jews, Judaism, and Antisemitism, Russia (or Soviet Union), Slavery receive the latest by email: subscribe to jeff jacoby's free mailing list


Culture

Historically Nubia was a region of different cultures. The Nubian geography greatly influenced ancient cultural development. Nubians have a culture celebrated in novels, poetry, storytelling, and music. In the ancient times, different groups held on to different cultures. The C-Group did pottery and practiced Pan Grave culture because they used to make shallow graves to bury their dead. The modern Sudan Nubians such as Mahas, Sikurta, and Danaqla use their own scripts to write. Mahas women and men practice scarification where they make three scars on every cheek. Danaqla, on the other hand, wear the scars on temples.


NUBIA and ABYSSINIA (Egypt and Ethiopia)

Abyssinia was a term used to describe the northern part of the current-day Ethiopian Empire and parts of Eretrea. Nubia also known as Kush and Ethiopia was a region along the Nile in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. The name Egypt, for the country in North Africa, comes from the Greek Aegyptos, which was the Greek pronunciation of the name ‘Hwt-Ka-Ptak’, which means “House of the Spirit of Ptah”, who was an early God of the ancient peoples of that region. In the early Old Kingdom, Egypt was simply known as ‘Kemet’ which means ‘Black Land’.

Kemet (Egypt): A Black African Civilization

This is a quote from an ancient Egyptian document called the Papyrus of Hunifer.. interpreted from the hieratic writing, “We came from the beginning of the Nile where God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of The Mountains of the Moon.” “We,” meaning the Egyptians, as stated, came from the beginning of the Nile. Where is “the beginning of the Nile? The farthest point of the beginning of the Nile is in Uganda this is the White Nile.” This a from Dr jochannan book: The Nile Valley Civilization…

Nubia and Abyssinia

Civil History, Antiquities, Arts, Religion, Literature, and Natural History

By The Rev. Michael Russell, LL.D.,

Author of “View of Ancient and Modern Egypt”

“Palestine, or the Holy Land,” etc.

Map of Nubia and Abyssinia

There is no country in the world more interesting to the antiquary and scholar than that which was known to the ancients as “Ethiopia above Egypt,” the Nubia and Abyssinia of the present day. It was universally regarded by the poets and philosophers of Greece as the cradle of those arts which at a later period covered the kingdom of the Pharaohs with so many wonderful monuments, as also of those religious rites which, after being slightly modified by the priests of Thebes, were adopted by the ancestors of Homer and Virgil as the basis of their mythology. A description of this remarkable nation, therefore, became a necessary supplement to the “View of Ancient and Modern Egypt,” which has been some time before the public.

In tracing the connection of the primitive people who dwelt on the Upper Nile, with the inhabitants of Arabia and of the remoter east, I have availed myself of the latest information that could be derived from Continental authors, as well as from the volumes of such of our own travelers as have ascended about the Second Cataract.

The work of Heeren * on the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, and Egyptians, possesses considerable value, not less on account of the ingenious views which it unfolds, than for the happy application of ancient literature to the illustration and embellishment of the main hypothesis.

Temple Of Dabod, Nubia (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

The reader will be surprised at the extent and magnificence of the architectural remains of Nubia, which, in some instances, have been found to rival, and, in others, even to surpass the more celebrated buildings of Egypt.

It will no longer be denied by any one who has seen the splendid work of Gau, that the pattern or type of those stupendous erections, which continue to excite the admiration of the tourist at Karnak, Luxor and Ghiza, may be detected in the numerous monuments still visible between the site of the famed Meroë* and the falls of Es Souan.

Pyramids of Giza (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

The more learned among professional artists are now nearly unanimous in the opinion that the principles of architecture, as well as of religious belief, have descended from Ethiopia to Egypt receiving improvement in their progress downward, till at length their triumph was completed at Diospolis*, in the palace of Osymandias* and the temple of Jupiter Ammon*.

The late expedition of Ishmael Pasha into Sennaar* and the other countries bounded by the two great branches of the Nile has added materially to our topographical knowledge of that portion of Africa, – one of the least frequented by Europeans. Cailliaud, English, and Linant have supplied to the geographer some important notices relative to the position of certain towns and mountains, of which only the names had formerly been conveyed to our ears.

The Publishers have taken the utmost pains to embody in the map prefixed to this volume the results of the latest discoveries accomplished by British, French and American travelers, under the protection of the Turkish army.

Preaching to the Falashas at Sharge (New York Public Library)

But no consideration associated with the history of Ethiopia is more interesting than the fact that the Christian religion, received about fifteen hundred years ago, continues to be professed by the great majority of the people. In regard to the mixture of Jewish rites with the institutions of the gospel, still observable among the Abyssinians, I have suggested some reflection which seem calculated to throw a new light on that obscure subject.

Of the literature of the same nation, so far a the relics could be collected from their chronicles and books of devotion, a suitable account has been given: connected in some degree with the brighter prospects which may yet be entertained by the friends of theological learning as arising from the well-directed efforts of certain benevolent associations in this country.

For some valuable information, not hitherto published, I am indebted to William Ersking Es., of Blackburn, late of Bombay, who kindly placed in my hands two large manuscript volumes containing Travels and Letters written in the East. Among these a number of communications from Mr. Nathaniel Pearce, during his residence in Abyssinia, addressed to several British residents at Mocha and Bombay, and embracing the more prominent events of his history between the years 1810 and 1818.

The Temple at Wady Saboua (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

In like manner, I have to express my obligations to Captain Armstrong of the Royal Artillery, who, in the course of his travels in Nubia, made drawings and measurements of the principal temples as far south as Wady Halfa. By means of these I have been enabled to ascertain the exact dimensions of several of those structures, the views of which have been given by some recent tourists with more attention to elegance than to professional accuracy in the details.

In order to render this little volume as complete as possible, the Publishers obtained the assistance of two eminent naturalists, Mr. Wilson and Dr. Greville to the former of whom the reader owes the instructive chapter on Zoology, while to the latter he is under a similar obligation for the Botanical outline, in which are ably described the vegetable productions of the Abyssinian provinces.

To complete the plan entertained with respect to Africa, there remains yet one volume, which will appear in due time, on the History, Antiquities, and Present Condition of the Barbary States.

Aboona Salama, Metropolitan of Ethiopia (New York Public Library)

In attempting to trace the history of the countries known to the ancients by the name of Ethiopia, we have to encounter the numerous obstacles which arise from the absence of a national literature, as well as from a succession of conquests made by a variety of barbarous tribes. Here indeed, as in Egypt, we possess the record of monuments which indicate the genius and religion of the people by whom the land was occupied at a very distant period but it is manifest that, in reading the language supplied by the arts, it must be extremely difficult to avoid the ambiguity inseparable from their expression in regard to the precise date at which they flourished.

The ruins of cities, of temples, and obelisks may no doubt bear evidence to the wisdom of former ages, to the power of conquerors, and to the spirit of magnificence which threw a transient splendor even over the path of destructive armies still, we cannot discover in them the genealogy of the nations to whom they were indebted for their origin, nor the earliest rudiments of that mechanical skill of which they illustrate so strikingly the progress and the perfection. A cloud hangs over the horizon of that remote antiquity with which we are desirous to become acquainted and as the current of time carries us still farther away from the point whither our researches are directed, we can hardly be said to enjoy the encouragement which arises from the hope of a successful result.

Egypt, from its vicinity to the Mediterranean, as also to the great thoroughfare which connects Asia with Europe, was comparatively well known to the historians of Greece. An intercourse was long maintained between the philosophers of that country and the priesthood of the Nile, which has proved the medium of much valuable information respecting the early kingdoms of Thebes and Memphis. But the difficulty of penetrating into Western Ethiopia checked at once the ardor of ambition and the enterprise of science. Neither the arms of Cambyses* nor the curiosity of Pythagoras could find a path into the regions of the Bahr el Abaid*, so as to lay open the wonders of Meroe*, or reveal to Europe the mysteries of its learning, its science, and its religious faith.

Granite Columns on the Island of Saye, Ethiopia (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

There is little doubt, however, that the treasures of knowledge, like the fertilizing current of the Nile, have descended the valley which, beginning at Sennaar*, terminates at Alexandria and moreover, that the progress of civilization must originally have taken the same direction, moving from the south towards the north. The ancient historians are unanimous in the opinion, that the City of a Hundred Gates owed its foundation to a people who dwelt above the Cataracts and that at a more recent period, when Lower Egypt began to posses a rich soil fitted for all the purposes of agriculture, and prove itself equal to the maintenance of a large population, the principal seat of government was removed to Memphis. A similar cause perhaps, at a still later date, gave rise to the removal of the capital to its present position, as well as to the erection of the several towns which from time to time have occupied the productive plains of the Delta.

To account for the facts just stated, we must suppose that the steam of emigration which, issuing from the mouths of the Euphrates, pursued its course both eastward and westward along the coast of Asia, had at an early age reached the Straits of Bab el Mandeb. The adventurers, instead of proceeding up the Red Sea, which is remarkable for its dangerous navigation, appear to have made their way into Abyssinia by some of those mountain-passes that still connect the Arabian Gulf with the higher valleys of the Nile.

There is indeed the best reason to believe that those lateral defiles which form the line of communication between the sea and the great rivers of Ethiopia witnessed the earliest expeditions from the East consisting of those daring spirits who, in the pursuits of commerce, or in search of more fertile lands, or hills enriched with gold, pushed their discoveries into Habesh, Nubia, and Sennaar.

The Great Rock Temple at Abou Simbel (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

The most obvious confirmation of the opinion now stated may be drawn from the striking resemblance which is known to subsist between the usages, the superstitions, the arts, and the mythology of the ancient inhabitants of Western India and those of the settlers on the Upper Nile. The sanctuaries of Nubia, for example, exhibit the same features, whether as to the style of architecture or the form of worship which must have been practiced in them, with the similar temples that have been recently examined in the neighborhood of Bombay. In both cases they consist of vast excavations hewn out in the solid body of a hill or mountain, and are decorated with huge figures, which shadow forth the same powers of nature, or serve as emblems to denote the same qualities in the subordinate divinities which were imagined to preside over the material universe.

The Temple of Dandur, (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860) Originally stood on the left bank of the Nile River, near the ancient town of Tutzis, now has residence in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.

We have elsewhere mentioned, as proof of this hypothesis, the very remarkable fact, that the Sepys* who joined the British army in Egypt imagined that they found their own temples in the ruins of Dendera, and were greatly incensed at the natives for neglecting the ancient deities whose statues are still preserved. So strongly, indeed, were they themselves impressed with this identity, that they proceeded to perform their devotions with all the ceremonies practiced in their native land. There is a resemblance too in the minor instruments of their superstition-the lotus, the lingam*, and the serpent, – which can hardly be regarded as accidental. But it is, no doubt, in the immense extent, the gigantic plan, the vast conception, which appear in all their sacred buildings, that we most readily discover the influence of the same lofty genius, and the endeavor to accomplish the same mighty object.

The excavated temple of Guerfeh Hassan, for example, reminds every traveler of the cave of Elephanta. The resemblance, indeed, is singularly striking, as are in fact all the leading principles of Nubian architecture, to that of the Hindus. They differ only in those details of the decorative parts which trifling points of variation in their religious creeds seem to have suggested but many even of the rites and emblems are precisely the same, especially those temples dedicated to Iswara* and Indian Bacchus.

In either country, the hardest granite mountains have been cut down into the resemblance of splendid buildings, the fronts of which are adorned with sculpture. In both, also, large masses of rock have been excavated into hollow chambers, whose sides are decorated with columns and statues carved out of the same stone, or lifted up into the air in the form of obelisks and pillars.

By whom and by what means these wonderful efforts have been accomplished is a mystery sunk too deep in the abyss of time ever to be clearly revealed. But we need only compare the monolithic temples of Nubia with those of Mahabalipoor, the excavations of Guerfeh Hassan with those of Elephanta, and the grottoes of Hadjur Silsili with the caverns of Ellora, to be convinced that these sacred monuments of ancient days derived their origin from the same source.

Abyssinian Group Sitting and Standing with horses (New York Public Library)

It is universally admitted that, if we except the ancient inhabitants of Egypt, there is no aboriginal people of Africa who have so many claims to our attention as the Ethiopians, a nation which, from the remotest times to the present, has been regarded as on of the most celebrated and most mysterious.

In the earliest traditions of nearly all the civilized tribes of the East, the name of this remarkable section of mankind is to be found and when the faint glimmering of fable gives way to the clearer light of history, the luster of their character is still undiminished. They continue the object of curiosity and admiration and we discover that the most cautious and intelligent writers of Greece hesitated not to place them in the first ranks of knowledge and refinement. The praise bestowed upon them by Homer is familiar to the youngest reader.

He descries them, not only as the most distant of the human race, but also as the most righteous and best beloved by the gods. The inhabitants of Olympus condescended to journey into their happy land, and partake of their feasts while their sacrifices were declared to be the most agreeable that could be offered to them by the hands of mortals. In the Iliad, Thetis informs her son that:

“The sire of gods and all th’ ethereal train,

On the warm limits of the farthest main,

Now mix with mortals, nor disdain to grace

The feasts of Ethiopia’s blameless race.

Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite,

Returning with the twelfth revolving light.”

To what, it has been asked, shall we attribute this early renown of one of the most sequestered nations of the earth? How did its fame penetrate the formidable desert with which it is surrounded, and which even now presents an almost insuperable bar to every one who attempts to reach its ancient capital? To suppose the allusions contained in the foregoing passage to be the mere offspring of the the poet’s fancy, will not be allowed by any reader who is at all acquainted with the nature of early tradition. But if they are more than fiction,- if the reports concerning this wonderful people are founded in truth,-then they become of the greatest importance to ancient history, and possess the strongest claims to our notice

But it must not be concealed that considerable ambiguity attaches to the term Ethiopian because it was applied by all classes of writers among the Greeks, not so much to denote a country bounded by certain geographical limits, as to describe the complexion of the inhabitants, whatever might be their position with respect to other nations It will not seem strange, therefore, that we find Ethiopians scattered over a considerable part of the ancient world.

Africa, no doubt, contained the greater portion of them but it is equally true that a large tract of Asia was occupied by a race who bore the same designation and as India was often made to comprise the southern division of the former continent, so, in like manner, Ethiopia was frequently described as including Southern India. Homer, who seems to have collected all the fragments of historical and geographical knowledge which were scattered among the learned of his age, recognizes the distinction now explained, and speaks of the Ethiopians as extending from the rising to the setting of the sun.

“But now the god, remote a heavenly guest

In Ethiopia, graced the genial feast

(A race divided, whom, with sloping rays,

The rising and descending sun surveys>

There on the world’s extremest verge revered

With hecatombs and prayer, in pomp preferred,

Distant he lay”

The ancient historians were wont to divide the Africans into two great classes, the Libyans and the Ethiopians to whom Herodotus adds the Greeks and Phoenicians, who as settlers occupied the northern coasts. This division was generally followed by succeeding writers, although with little accuracy in the use of names and while we admit that there might be no real difference in the lineage of the two principal families now pointed out, it is at least manifest that they presented to the eye of the Grecian geographers such peculiarities, especially in the color of the skin, as to seemed to justify the discrimination which we find established in their works. But it is obvious, at the same time, that there was a greater affinity between the Ethiopians on the eastern shores of the Arabian Gulf and those on the African side, have between these last and the other swarthy tribes in the interior of Libya.

Herodotus, indeed observes that the Asiatics have straight hair, while such as dwell above Egypt have it very much curled. It is certain, however, that all the black inhabitants of Africa do not display this quality for many of the natives of the Upper Nile, through their skins are of a very dark hue, have hair resembling that of Europeans, being neither curled nor woolly.

The Cataract Of Tangour, Ethiopia (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

The father of history mentions a circumstance which is not less true at the present time than it was at the remote period in which he lived. He relays that, in the extensive district which stretches from the first cataract to Sennaar*, there were two different classes of inhabitants, very easily distinguished from each other. The one, described by him as aboriginal, he includes under the general appellation of Ethiopians while the other, which appeared to have sprung from an Arabian race, must have removed into the country at an early epoch, where they continued, even in this day, to follow a wandering mode of life.

That such was the case under the Persian government is evident from what we are told respecting the army of Xerxes, whom they must have attended in his expedition into Greece. The Arabians and Ethiopians are associated by the historian under one leader. “Aranes, son of Darius by Artystone a daughter of Cyrus, commanded the Arabians and the Ethiopians who came from beyond Egypt.” In later times the Arabs seem to have possessed a still larger portion of Nubia, and to have occupied the banks of the Nile from Phillae* to the neighborhood of Meroe a fact which is confirmed by Pliny*, the authority of Juba, the Numidian king, who wrote a work on the geography of Africa.

It would now be extremely difficult to draw a precise line of distinction between the original tribes and those whose lineage might perhaps be traced to the Arabian immigrants. The latte have not only dwelt in the land more than two thousand years, and mingled freely with the older stock, but their language also has been so generally adopted by the natives, that it can no longer be employed as a decisive characteristic.

Female Churning with Male Sitting next to her, Abyssinia (New York Public Library)

Heeren is, however, of opinion that all who do not speak Arabic must be aboriginal, as he considers it very improbable that the Asiatic settlers would exchange their more improved tongue for the rude dialect of barbarous hordes, to who, in all respects, they would naturally consider themselves superior. But no one, who views all the difficulties of the case, will maintain that, after the lapse of twenty-three centuries, the line of descent can be otherwise marked than by those physiological qualities in feature and form which neither length of time nor most intimate mixture can altogether obliterate.

From the discoveries made by recent travelers in the western parts of Africa, it is no longer doubtful that there has existed in it, from very ancient times, a numerous people who are neither Moors nor Negroes. Hornemann and Lyon have made us acquainted with two nations in that quarter, who appear to have possessed all the vast range of country which stretches from the shores of the Mediterranean to the banks of the Joliba*.

They are indeed divided into many tribes but all speak the same language which is entirely different from Arabia, and is found, in fact, to be no other than that which is used by the Berbers in the Atlas Mountains. With regard to their color, though it certainly is not uniform, the difference seems to depend in a great measure on the place of abode and the manner of living and properly speaking, it amounts to nothing more than a mere variation of tint, which is lighter or darker according to circumstances.

The western portion of this race are white, as far as the climate and their habits will allow it. Others are of a yellow cast, like the Arabs some are swarthy and in the neighborhood of Sudan there is a tribe which is said to be completely black. Their lineaments, however, do not all resemble those of the negro. They are similarly made, and rather tall. Commerce is their principal occupation, which they carry on between the interior and the countries bordering on the northern coast. Their moral character has been favorably estimated and it is thought that, if their talents were duly cultivated, they would probably become on of the first nations in the world.

The account of Hornemann is confirmed by Captain Lyon, who asserts that the Tuaricks, one of the tribes here alluded to, are the finest race of men he ever saw tall, straight, and handsome, with a certain air of independence which is very imposing. They are generally white the dark-brown of their complexion being only occasioned by the heat of the climate. Their weapons are a long sword and a dagger, without which no one is ever seen abroad, and an elegant spear highly ornamented and sometimes made entirely of iron. Their language has been already described as the Berber, which they maintain to be very ancient, and is still spoken extensively in Western Africa.

The Tibboos are a different people from that now described, in appearance, manner of living, and even in language. Their color is a bright black but their features partake not in the smallest degree of the negro character. They have aquiline noses, fine teeth, and lips formed like those of Europeans. In the language of Herodotus, however, they would be included among Ethiopians having the dark skin, which is his estimation, formed the distinguishing mark of all the nations to whom he applied the term.

It is probable that the Nubians, those at least who do not boast an oriental extraction, are of the same race with the ancient Berbers, the progenitors of the Tuaricks*, and perhaps of the Tibboos*. They were not known by their present name till the era of the Grecian kings of Egypt. It is first mentioned by Eratosthenes and soon afterward came into common use, both as a general denomination for all the tribes dwelling on the banks of the Nile from Es Souan to Meroe, and also in a more limited sense for the inhabitants of the modern Dongola*.

Their language, of which Burkhardt has given us some specimens, is quite different from the Arabic and in this, as well as in their external appearance, they present an affinity to the natives of the Arabian peninsula. They are of a dark-brown color, with hair somewhat curled, either b nature or art, but not at all woolly. Their visage has no resemblance to the negro physiognomy. The men are well formed, strong and muscular, with fine countenances. They are very thinly clad but are all armed with a spear five feet long, a dagger, and a large shield made of the skin of the hippopotamus.

Males Standing with Shields Abyssinia (New York Public Library)

In ascending the Nile we meet with several other tribes, who, it is very probable, either belong to the Nubian race, or derive their descent from a common origin. They posses good forms and features, manifest a warlike disposition, and carry into the field of battle the same kind of weapons which were used by their remote ancestors. They commonly fight on horseback, and are armed with a double-pointed spear, a sword, and a large buckler. Hence the fine passage in the book of Jeremiah: “Come up, ye horses and rage, ye chariots and let the mighty men come forth: the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield.”

When the traveler who has reached the junction of the two great branches of the Nile turns his face eastward in the direction of the Arabian Gulf, he finds his notice attracted to a variety of tribes whose genealogy it is extremely difficult to determine. The Abyssinians, properly so called, are, we may presume, the descendants of a people who at various times have migrated from the opposite shores of the Red Sea, and who, in pursuit of commerce, or of a safe retreat from powerful enemies, disputed with the natives the possession of their singular country, But we refrain from entering into details on this subject, as we shall have a better opportunity in the next chapter for considering the geographical relations of the several states which extend from Masuah* to the borders of Sennar. We shall therefore at present only bestow a few remarks on an hypothesis, illustrated with not less ingenuity than learning by Heeren, in regard to the early civilization and commerce of the African nations, especially the inhabitants of Meroë, Thebes, and their dependent colonies at Ammonium, Adule, Aza and Axum.

Map of Africa 1833 (New York Public Library)

It is established by the clearest testimony of ancient history, that at a very remote period the Ethiopians carried on a considerable trade, in which the Arabians, long known as navigators and voyagers to India, bore a prominent part, as might indeed be inferred from the relative position of the several countries. Of this international traffic in the southern regions the strongest evidence still remains, and there is no doubt that the gold of Africa, the spices of India, the precious productions of Arabia, occupied the laborious carriers of the desert long before the date of our historical records.

The prophet Isaiah notices the commerce of the Egyptians and Ethiopians in a manner which renders it perfectly clear that these celebrated nations had already enriched themselves by their exertions in this branch of industry. “The labor of Egypt and merchandise of Ethiopia, and of the Sabeans*, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine.”

Commerce and religion, we are reminded by the author, were always indissolubly connected in the East. The long journeys in the desert, and the marauding habits of the roving barbarians by whom the wilderness was infested, rendered some spiritual influence necessary for its protection and hence it is presumed that mercantile transactions were usually conducted in the vicinity of temples, and sometimes within their walls. “Mecca remains still, through its holy sanctuary, the chief mart for the commerce of Arabia.”

The situation of Nubia has always made it the grand route for caravans between Ethiopia and the countries of this side of the desert. At the present day a communication of that kind I maintained across the waste from Upper Egypt to Sennar and Atbar, the ancient Meroë. This indeed the natural emporium for the produce of Inner Africa being the extreme point of the gold-countries towards the land of the Pharaohs, while, from its proximity to Arabia Felix, it constituted the most appropriate mart for goods conveyed from the remoter East.

The Colossal Statue of Ramses at Abu Simbel, a village in Nubia, southern Egypt, near the border with Sudan. (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

Of the vast trade still carried on there modern travelers have given us ample accounts observing at the same time that the great salt-works, whence the surrounding county is supplied, are but at a short distance from Shendy. The commerce with Egypt being established, it is manifest that Meroë must have extended its traffic far into the south of Africa and M. Heeren is even inclined to doubt whether the extensive ruins at Axum, Azab, Meroë and Adule, really belonged to cities, supposing them rather to have been extensive places of trade, adorned with temples, and appropriated to caravans,-an hypotheses to which he is led by the nature of the country.

In a word, the conclusions which he draws from a minute examination of all the notices which history has preserved relative to those ancient states are, that a commercial intercourse existed between Southern Asia and Africa, between India and Arabia, and thence between these countries and Ethiopia, Libya, and Egypt,-that its principal seat for Africa was Meroë, the chief route of which, he thinks, is still pointed out by a chain of ruins extending from the shores of the Indian sea to the Mediterranean,-that Adule, Axum, and Azab were links of ti between Arabia and Meroë and that Thebes and Ammonium united the Nile, Egypt, and Carthage, – and finally, that its chief stations were sacerdotal establishments, the head of which was Meroë. Whence all the colonies were sent out. Hence he draws an inference, which will not be hastily questioned by any competent judge, that the first seas of commerce were also the first seats of civilization. Exchange of goods let to exchange of ideas and by his collision of mind was first struck out the sacred fame of humanity.

The connection between merchandise and the usages of religion was not confined to the wandering tribes of Africa, buy may be traced throughout the ancient world wherever men collected in great numbers to celebrate the rites of a national faith. As the adoration presented to the gods was not thought complete without the addition of more expensive offerings, the worshiper repaired not to the stated festival unless accompanied with beasts for sacrifice, or with frankincense and other spices to perfume the air. The vicinity of a Temple was thus naturally converted into a market, more especially at the holy seasons of the year.

In the sacred Scriptures the reader will discover numerous facts which establish the view now given of the relation between commerce and piety. Even the consecrated fame of Jerusalem was contaminated by the presence of dealers, who sought their own advantage rather than the honor of the Great Being whom they professed to venerate. A similar abuse was long tolerated in the Christian church and hence most of the periodical transactions of a commercial nature became associated with the names of the more popular saints. Every one knows that the feria, or holy-days of the Roman communion, supplied the term for our fairs in all the counties of Great Britain.

There is accordingly no small appearance of truth in the observations of Heeren relative to the mutual influence of religion and traffic among barbarous tribes. The sight of a magnificent temple in the wilderness secured at once a demand and a protection for the commodities which the wandering merchantmen brought from afar. It may still remain a question, whether the sanctuary was erected for the assurance of the caravan or whether the Arab and Ethiopian bent their course through the desert in a line indicated by those religious establishments. But there can be no reasonable ground for doubt that the dwellers on both shores of the Red Sea respected the worship of Jupiter Ammon*, as the means whereby they at once added to their wealth and secured their acquisitions.

We must not neglect to mention that the nomadic tribes, who continue to carry on the trade between Egypt and Abyssinia, appear in the same character in one of those triumphant pageants which Ptolemy Philadelphus* exhibited on his accession to the throne. When the procession of the Nubian caravan appeared, “there came,” says an ancient writer, “a train of camels, carrying three hundred pounds of frankincense, crocus, cassia and cinnamon, together with two hundred pounds of other costly spices and drugs. These were followed by a host of Ethiopians armed with lances one band of those bore six hundred elephants’ teeth, another two thousand pieces of ebony, and another sixty vessels of gold, silver, and gold-dust.”

But the appearance of Indian produce in the western world was familiar to all classes of men long before the days of the Grecian kings of Egypt. The spices of the East, especially cinnamon, came as early before us as the Mosaic records and in such quantities, too, as plainly show that they must already have formed an important article of commerce. The holy oil of the sanctuary required the following ingredients: “moreover the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet callus two hundred and fifty shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil-olive an hin. And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary it shall be an holy anointing oil.”

The reader will observe that most of the ingredients specified in this sacred order were derived from the shores of Hindustan, and must have been objects of commerce among the traders of Arabia, who repaired thither in ships, year after year, to exchange the the commodities of their own land, as well as of Ethiopia and the more southern parts of the Africa continent. In the history of the patriarch Joseph, mention is incidentally made of the same traffic carried on by the inhabitants of the desert, the progeny of Ishmael. The earlier annals of this intercourse, which connected in the bonds of mutual benefit and intelligence the most cultivated nations of the ancient world, are irrecoverably lost and it is in vain that we attempt by conjecture or investigation to supply their absence. The facts of which we are in possession justify a retrospect of not less than four thousand years, if we follow the light of that scriptural chronology which has obtained the sanction of nearly all the learned and our researches are thereby removed to a period when the nations of Europe had not even begun to assume a settled form, or to dispute with one another the territory on which the foundations of their power were afterward to be laid.

In tracing the progress of civilization in Egypt, we arrived at results which argued a very high antiquity. We found reason to ascribe to the Pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty the gigantic labors of Thebes, and the magnificent palaces which adorned wither side of the Nile in that stupendous capital What an astonishing era of art, fully two thousand years before the Augustan age at Rome!

Soleb looking from the inner court towards the gate, Nubia (from “Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia Illustrated, 1860)

But the vast works at Karnak, Luxor and Medinet Abou* are much less ancient than the buildings which have been discovered above he Cataracts. The eye of science has recently been invited to countries which stretch southward along the Upper Nile, and to examine the memorials of kingdoms whose names have not yet been enrolled in the eternal tablets of history. In Nubia and Ethiopia, says a foreign writer, numerous and primeval monuments proclaim so loudly a cultivation contemporary, ay earlier than that of Egypt, that it may be conjectured with the greatest confidence that the arts, sciences, and religion proceeded from Nubia to the lower country of Mizraim* that civilization descended the Nile, built Memphis, and, finally somewhat later, wrested by colonization the Delta from the sea.

From Meroë and Axum downwards to the Mediterranean, there arose, as it is testified by Diodorus*, improved and powerful states, which though independent of each other, were connected by the same language, the same writing, and the same religion.

Thus we find that in proportion as we ascend into the early ages of human history the closer becomes the connection between Egypt and Ethiopia. The Hebrew writers seldom mention the one without the other and the inhabitants of both are usually described as a commercial people. When Isaiah celebrates the victories of Cyrus, their submission is spoken of as his most magnificent reward. When Jeremiah extols the great victory of Nebuchadnezzer* over Pharaoh-Necho at Carchemish, the Ethiopians are allied to the Egyptians and when Ezekiel threatens the downfall of Egypt, he unites it with the most distant Ethiopia.

Whence this general and early spread of a name which glimmers in the oral history of so many nations, and which is renowned as well by Jewish poets as by Grecian bards? Whence his fame of the Ethiopians, while the deserts which surrounded their land seemed to form an eternal barrier between them and the inhabitants of the north? These questions cannot be satisfactorily answered, except by allowing the early civilization which his toy and tradition unite in ascribing to the sacerdotal states that sprang from Meroë.

Abyssinian Ladies with Female Attendants (New York Public Library)

We are not ignorant that, in maintaining the obligations of Egypt to the more ancient Ethiopia for her learning, civilization, and knowledge of the arts, we have to encounter the opposition of several learned writers, whose opinions on this subject have been determined by an inspection of the Nubian valley. It is obvious, no doubt, that the narrow limits of the latter country, hemmed in between a double range of barren mountains, which occasionally protrude heir rocks to the very margin of the river, could not have supplied the means of luxurious refinement to a great nation. But it is equally certain, on the other hand, that beyond the confines of Nubia there are extensive and most fertile regions, which, aided by the periodical overflow of the Nile and the influence of a tropical sun, were capable of supporting in the utmost comfort a very large population.

Besides, Ethiopia, from her natural position, surrounded by deserts which no stranger could penetrate, and by mountains almost inaccessible, enjoyed a degree of security highly favorable to her progress in the liberal arts while the adventurous inhabitants of the contiguous wildernesses, who carried on her trade, connected her with Arabia and India on the one hand, and with the shores of the Mediterranean on the other.

It was not perhaps till the days of Solomon that the Red Sea was used as the channel of trade for Syria and Palestine, when the mariners of Arabia had acquired sufficient confidence to navigate all the gulf, and to visit the shores of the ocean beyond the straits. Prior to that period the rich produce of the East was conveyed by the erratic hordes of the desert, who preferring the short passage of Azab O Masuah, pushed forward with their loads to the upper regions of the Nile.

The possession of wealth lays the best foundation for learning and the arts and the perusal of ancient history will convince every reader, that in the early stages of society these are devoted to the decoration and advancement of religion. The stately temple is seen to rise long before any attention is paid to the efforts of private life and the precious metals, as well as the richest spices and perfumes, are lavished on the instruments of worship, while as yet the blessings of civilization are very sparingly enjoyed by the mass of the people. On this subject, instead of entering into details unsuited to the nature of our undertaking, we refer to the Essay by Heeren on the Trade of the African Nations.

(*1) Nubia: is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. It was one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Northeastern Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 B.C. onward (through Nubian monuments and artifacts, as well as written records from Egypt and Rome), and was home to one of the African empires. There were a number of large Nubian kingdoms throughout the Postclassical Era, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate, resulting in the Arabization of much of the Nubian population. Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, and within the Kingdom of Egypt from 1899 to 1956.

The name Nubia is derived from that of the Noba people, nomads who settled the area in the 4th century following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, ancestral to Old Nubian. Old Nubian was mostly used in religious texts dating from the 8th and 15th centuries AD. Before the 4th century, and throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, included under the name Ethiopia (Athiopia)

Historically, the people of Nubia spoke at least two varieties of the Nubian language group, a subfamily that includes Nobiin (the descendant of Old Nubian), Kenuzi-Dongola, Midob and several related varieties in the northern part of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan. Until at least 1970, the Birgid language was spoken north of Nvala in Darfur, but is now extinct.

(*2) Abyssinia: Today’s Ethiopian Empire, was historically known as Abyssinia, a nation that comprised the northern half of present-day Ethiopia, and parts of present-day Eritrea. Note that this does not refer to the ancient Ethiopian Empire.

(*3) Ethiopia: Historic Ethiopian Empire: The Ethiopian Empire (Amhark: Mängəstä Ityop’p’ya), also known as Abyssinia (a Europeanized form of the Arabic al-Habash was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area covered by the northern half of Ethiopia. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe dynasty until 1974, when the Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d’etat. Following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African nations to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa by the European imperial powers in the late 19th century. In 1974, Ethiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state. It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor (the last being the Central African Empire, which was implemented between 1976 and 1979 by Emperor Bokassa I)

(*4) Carthage, a seaside suburb of Tunisia’s capital, Tunis, is known for its Punic and Roman archaeological sites. It was the seat of the powerful Carthaginian Empire, which fell to Rome in the 2nd century B.C.E. Today it retains a scattered collection of ancient baths, theaters, villas and other ruins, many with sweeping views of the Gulf of Tunis.

(*5) Heeren: Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren

(*6) Meroë: Pyramids of the Kushite rulers, River Nile, Sudan

(*7) Mizraim is the Israeli Hebrew and Aramaic name for the land of Egypt, with the dual suffix -āyim, perhaps referring to the “two Egypts”: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Neo-Babylonian texts use the term Mizraim for Egypt.

(*8) Diospolis: City of Zeus, Diospolis Parva (Hiu, Hu, Hut, Hut-Sekhen) (26 01′ N 32 17’E). Principal town of Upper Egypt province.

(*9) Osymandias: Ruins of the Palace of Sesostris or Osymandias, Egypt

(*10) Jupiter Ammon: Jupiter is the god of sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion. Jupiter Ammon equated with the Egyptian deity Amun after the Roman conquest of Egypt.

(*11) Sennar: A region of he E. Sudan, between the White Nile and the Blue Nile. A Kingdom from the 16th to 18th centuries

(*12) Cambyses: (Old Persian Kambujiya) the Elder was king of Anshan from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great

(*13) Bahr el Abaid, Sudan: The Bahr el Ghazal in Arabic language is both a River and a Region of southwestern Republic of Sudan State . The Region takes its name from the River. This River flows about 80O – 810 km east to Lake No where it joins the Bahr el Jebel to form the White Nlie sometimes called ( Bahr el Abiad ). The population of this Region is mainly by the Dinka people,and others are the Nilotic Tribes : the Shilluk and the Nuer and Jo Luo and the Acholi and Lotuhu .

(*14) Lingam: a symbol of divine generative energy, especially a phallus or phallic object worshiped as a symbol of Shiva.

(*15) Sepys: A ‘sepoy’ was an Indian infantryman employed by the armies of the British East India Company (c. 1700-1857), or later by the British Indian Army

(*16) Ishwara: Īśvara, is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism. In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, Ishvara can mean supreme soul, ruler, king, queen or husband.In medieval era Hindu texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, Ishvara means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self.

(*17) Phillae is a temple dedicated to Hathor and Isis. Both were mother goddesses from the New Kingdom (c.1550-c.1069)

(*18) Pliny: Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder (/ˈplɪni/), was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

(*19) Joliba: The Niger is called Jeliba or Joliba “great river” in Manding.

(*20) Tuaricks are white people of the Berber race,

(*21) Tibboos are black people of the Berber race

(*22) Dongola (Arabic: دنقلا Dunqulā), also spelled Dunqulah, and formerly known as Al ‘Urdi, is the capital of the state of Northern in Sudan, on the banks of the Nile

(*23) Masuah, which means the port of harbor of the Shepherds, is a small island immediately on the Abyssinian shore.

(*24) Sabeans were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in what is today Yemen, in the south west of the Arabian Peninsula. The kingdom of Saba’ has been identified with the biblical land of Sheba.

(*25) Ptolemy Philadelphus “Ptolemy the brother-loving”, August/September 36 BC – 29 BC) was a prince and was the youngest and fourth child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen CleopatraVII of Egypt, and her third with Roman Triumvir Mark Anthony.

(*26) Medinet Habu: The Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu is an important New Kingdom period structure in the West Bank of Luxor in Egypt.

(*27) Diodorus: Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC.

(*28) Nebuchadnezzar: II was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem’s temple are ascribed to him.
(*29) The Battle of Carchemish was fought about 605 BC between the allied armies of Egypt and Assyria against the armies of Babylonia, allied with the Medes, Persians and Scythians.


Ancient Egypt Maps by Time Periods

Early Dynastic Period 2850-2650

1 st Dynasty- 2 nd Dynasty

The Leaders

Menes-Narmer/ Hor-Aha/ Uagi/ Den / Seth-Peribsen

Civil events

  • Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Forming a single kingdom.
  • Development of the funeral architecture.
  • Foundation of Memphis in the boundary between the two parts of the Country.

Military events

  • Campaigns against the Nubians
  • Extension of the Egyptian territory south of the first cataract

Ancient Egypt Maps. Early Dynastic Period

Old Kingdom

3 rd Dynasty(2650-2600) – 4 th Dynasty(2600-2480)- 5 th Dynasty(2480-2350)- 6 th Dynasty(2350-2190)

The Leaders

Djoser / Sneferu / Khufu / Menkaure / Userkaf / Sahure / Unas/ Pepi I/ Pepi II

Civil Events

  • Construction of the great pyramids
  • testimony of a high technical
  • artistic level and economic prosperity
  • Intensification of commercial relations with the Nubians, Libyans and Semites of the Near East.
  • The first religious texts are written, the Texts of the Pyramids with ritual formulas for the cult of the dead.
  • Towards the end of the period the autonomy of local authorities and the process of “federalization” of Egypt to the detriment of the authority of the sovereign are accentuated.

Military Events

  • Sneferu carries out attacks in Nubia and Libia to fight the invasion and pillage.
  • Sahure makes a maritime expedition against Byblos.
  • During the region of Pepi I the important campaign against the Syrian-Palestinian tribes take place.

Ancient Egypt Maps. Old Kingdom

First Intermediate Period 2190-2050

7 th Dynasty (Memphis)- 8 th Dynasty (Coptic and Abydos)- 9 th Dynasty (Heracleopolis)- 10 th Dynasty (Heracleopolis)

The Leaders

Khety I / Khety III/ Merikare

Civil Events

  • Fracture of the unity of the empire and formation of semiautonomous principalities formation of local dynasties in Memphis, Copts, Abydos the sovereign of Heracleopolis predominates over all of them.
  • Original literary works flourish, for example: Instructions for King Merikare and dialogue of a man tired of life, with his soul.

Military Events

  • Frequent wars between the lords of the various regions (nomos) for achieving supremacy.
  • Invasions and incursions from the Near East.

Ancient Egypt Maps. First Intermediate Period

Middle Kingdom 2050-1780

11 th Dynasty (2130-1991) – 12 th Dynasty (1991-1780)

The Leaders

Mentuhotep I / Amenemhat I/ Sesostris I/ Amenemhat II/ Sesostris II/ Sesostris III/ Amenemhat III/ Amenemhat IV

Civil Events

  • Reunification of Egypt under the sovereigns of Thebes.
  • The construction of the monumental tombs begins on the eastern bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (Luxor and Karnak).
  • The capital is transferred, stationed in Lisht, the administration is reorganized and power is centralized.

Military Events

  • Expeditions of exploration to Sinai and Arabia. Military campaign of Sesostris III in Palestine.
  • Conquest of Nubia by Sesostris III.

Ancient Egypt Maps. Middle Kingdom

Second Intermediate Period 1780-1560

13 th Dynasty (1780-1700) – 14 th Dynasty (1780-1700) – 15 th Dynasty (1700-1630) – 16 th Dynasty (1630-1580) – 16 th Dynasty (1610-1560)

The Leaders

Apepi / Seqenenre Tao II/ Kamose / Ahmose I

Civil Events

  • Repeated dynastic crises and disintegration of central power.
  • Decadence and impoverishment of the country.
  • Chaotic situation determined by the invasion of the Hyksos “lords of foreign countries”.
  • Awakening of national sentiment and insurrection against the Hyksos.

Military Events

  • Invasions of the Hyksos who conquer Lower Egypt and establish their dynasties there.
  • Military campaigns against the Hyksos conducted by Seqenenre Tao II sovereign of Thebes who dies fighting.
  • Ahmose conquers the capital of the Hyksos, Avaris, and pursues his adversaries to Palestine.
  • Expeditions of Ahmose against Syria and Nubia that has returned to become independent.

Ancient Egypt Maps. Second Intermediate Period

New Kingdom 1560-1085

18 th Dynasty (1560-1345) – 19 th Dynasty (1345-1220) – 20 th Dynasty (1220-1085)

The Leaders

Thutmose I/ Thutmosis II/ Hatshepsut/ Thutmose III/ Amenhotep II/ Thutmose IV/ Amenhotep III / Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)/ Tutankhamun/ Horemheb/ Seti I / Ramses II/ Merneptah / Ramses III

Civil Events

  • The construction of the rupestrian or hypogean tombs begins in the Valley of the Kings.
  • Alliance with the king of Mitanni concerted by Thutmosis IV.
  • Religious reform ordered by Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) and centered on the cult of the solar god, Aten, bearer of life.
  • Construction of the new capital Akhetaten, opposition of the Theban clergy and failure of the reform.
  • Transfer of the capital Pi-Ramesses to the delta by Ramses II.

Military Events

  • Thutmose I, Nubian reconquest.
  • Victory of Thutmose III over the local princes in Megiddo and Palestine: Palestine and Syria become Egyptian provinces.
  • During the reign of Akhenaten revolts the East.
  • Campaigns of Ramses I and Ramses II to conquer Palestine and Syria.
  • Battle of Kadesh of uncertain outcome between the Egyptians of Ramses II and the Hittites of Muwatalli. Attempt of invasion of the “People of the Sea” repelled by Ramses II.

Ancient Egypt Maps. New Kingdom

Third Intermediate Period 1085-715

21 st Dynasty (1085-950) – 22 nd Dynasty (950-730) – 23 rd Dynasty (817-730) – 24 th Dynasty (730-715)

The Leaders

Smendes / Herihor/ Sheshonq I/ Tefnakht/ Bakenrenef

Civil Events

  • End of the Egyptian unit.
  • Multiplying the independent principalities: towards the middle of the eighth century four local sovereigns claim the title of Pharaoh.

Military Events

The Late Period 715-332

25 th Dynasty (750-656) – 26 th Dynasty (663-525) – 27 th Dynasty (525-404) – 28 th Dynasty (404-398) – 29 th Dynasty (398-378) – 30 th Dynasty (378-341) – 31 st Dynasty (341-332)

The Leaders

Piye / Sabacom/ Tantamani / Psamtik I / Necho / Psamtik II/ Amasis/ Psamtik III/ Amirteo/ Nectanebo II

Civil Events

  • Egypt, reunified by the sovereigns of Sais, after the Assyrian domination, experiences an economic renaissance (saita rebirth).
  • The construction of a canal between the Nile and Red Sea begins during the reign of Pharaoh Necho.
  • Phoenician sailors travel around Africa on account and order of Necho.

Military Events

  • The sovereigns of Kush conquer all Egypt and unite Nubia and Egypt in a single kingdom.
  • Invasion of the Assyrians and their domination in Egypt.
  • Rebellion of Psamtik, prince of Sais, that frees the country from the Assyrians.
  • In Pelusio on the delta, Psamtik III is defeated by the Persians, who organize Egypt as a satrapy of his empire.
  • The princes of Sais, Mendes and Benito make the last and ephemeral attempts to liberate Egypt from the Persians.


The fishermen of Nubia would hunt crocodiles and stuff them with straw, hanging them over their doorsteps as talismans to protect against the evil eye. The crocodile's mouth was left open, but the body was draped with colourful beads. For the people of ancient Egypt , the olom , as the Nile crocodile is known in the Nubian dialect, was much more than a good luck charm. In the time of the Pharaohs he was worshiped as the god Sobek, in whose honour the temple of Komombo was erected in Upper Egypt .

Nubian villages were built of stone, clay and sand, the roofs usually of jareed and grain stalks. The floors were covered with clean sand and household utensils for everyday use hung from the ceiling.

Models of Nubians in traditional houses carrying out various domestic, social and agricultural activities that reveal the traditional way of life can now be seen in the Nubia museum in Aswan. There is even a painting of the weekly Post Boat that once stopped at each of the 46 districts of Nubia en route to Wadi Halfa from Shellel, south of Aswan , carrying mail and supplies.


Ph.D. | 6/18/2009, 5 p.m.

While listening to lectures or reading books from master scholars on ancient Kemet (i.e. Cheikh Anta Diop, Yosef ben-Jocannan, John G. Jackson, John Henrik Clarke, Gerald Massey), one thing was consistently mentioned Kemet (Egypt) was the oldest civilization on the planet. This has been the theme for some time. Another area in the Nile Valley began appearing in literature, but not a lot of attention was paid because of the focus on Kemet. We may now have to re-adjust our thinking. Kemet was the most advanced ancient civilization, but not the oldest, though it remains part of the discussion.

In 1962, a research team headed by Keith C. Seele, Director of The University of Chicago Oriental Institute Nubian Expedition, discovered a pharaonic dynasty in Nubia that predated the first pharaonic period in Kemet (Egypt). This is an area that extends from northern Sudan to southern Kemet. In some literature it was referred to as ancient Ethiopia, or as in the Bible, Kush. Today, it is called Ta-Seti.

On 1 March 1979, The New York Times carried an article on its front page, written by Boyce Rensberger, with the headline: "Nubian Monarchy Called Oldest". In the article, Rensberger wrote: "Evidence of the oldest recognizable monarchy in human history, preceding the rise of the earliest Egyptian kings by several generations, has been discovered in artifacts from ancient Nubia." He estimated that "The first kings of Ta-Seti may well have ruled about 5900 BC."

Bruce Williams, archaeologist at the University of Chicago, continuing the research, adds his perspective. "A newly discovered ancient kingdom is always a matter of interest, but when it precedes the earliest known monarchy, the unification of Egypt in the fourth millennium B.C., then history itself is reborn. The place is ancient Nubia at Qustul, where the investigation of archaeological materials recovered during the great 1960s rescue effort has recently unveiled a birthplace of pharaonic civilization several generations before the rise of the first historic Egyptian dynasty." (Archeology Magazine)

The rescue effort was to retain and document as many materials and artifacts as possible before waters from the construction of the two Aswan Dams, creating Lake Nasser, covered the entire area.

According to Ivan Van Sertima, in a lecture, palaces were found, along with the falcon deity Heru (Greeks called Horus), which is later` found in Kemet. The beginnings of the Medu Neter (a sacred writing system), called hieroglyphs by the Greeks, were also found. One of the most significant finds was the crown of the south (before the unification of Kemet) on the heads of a dozen pharaohs, prior to the first pharaoh of Kemet.

Women were regarded highly in Ta-Seti. A number of women had the title Kentake, which means Queen Mother. Roman literature referred to them as Candace. Some of the women were heads of state. Kentake Qalhata (639 B.C.) had her own pyramid built at Al Kurru.

The reason so much emphasis has been put on Kemet, it is where ancient civilization reached its zenith. It is also the place that many European classicists scholars have declared war against the reality of the original inhabitants being indigenous Afrikans, and that the arts and sciences, which are now practiced throughout the world, were created by these same black people. This is totally unacceptable to these European and Arab scholars who will never admit what they already know.

Even Keith C. Seele, who first began the research at Ta-Seti, did not reveal his findings while he was alive.

When we refer to the world's oldest civilization, we have to go beyond just Kemet itself, but reach into Sudan, commonly referred to as Nubia. No matter which area one wants to reference, scientific facts still reveal that civilization began in Afrika, created by black people.


Southern Egypt/Nubia Map - History

Travel In Nubia
Egyptian incursions into Nubia, a land rich in copper and gold ores, started from early times. Djer, the 1st dynasty pharaoh, left an inscription at the entrance to the Second Cataract depicting several corpses and a man being taken as prisoner (probably no more than a punitive raid), and there is evidence that one site in Nubia near a particularly rich vein of copper was occupied for two centuries for the smelting of large quantities of ore. By the 4th and 5th dynasties there was considerable activity there. Rock inscriptions at Kulb, a gold- mining area, indicate the most southern point at which Egyptian Old Kingdom prospectors worked.

Exploitation of Nubia’s mineral wealth does not imply colonisation which did not, in fact, occur until the Middle Kingdom (when massive fortresses were constructed at the Second Cataract). The expeditions, though primarily conducted to satisfy ancient Egyptian requirements, were mutually beneficial. Egypt acquired highly valued commodities including gold, myrrh, electrum (a gold and silver alloy), ebony, animal skins (especially panther) and gums, and the Nubians depended on Egypt for corn, oil, honey, clothing and other items. The Nile in Nubia was flanked by a wall of hills to east and west which closely confined the valley, and apart from the narrow strip between the river and the ridges, the land was desolate, the Nubians impoverished. They lived in squalid low- built houses and homes in settlements along the river’s edge or beside water holes and channels.

It was from the Nubian tribes that a 6th-dynasty nobleman called Uni recruited troops to suppress agitating Bedouins in the frontier provinces of the Delta, in order to safeguard ancient Egyptian sources of raw material in Sinai. Egypt had no standing army at this time, and diere is little doubt that the Nubians readily seized the opportunity of finding work in the Egyptian forces. Uni quelled revolts in the Delta and Sinai regions on no less than five occasions and was thenceforth appointed as ‘Keeper of the Door of the South’. His main task appears to have been to keep the bordering Egyptian Nubian tribes in check. His success is attested by the fact that in the 5th year of Merenre’s reign he did what no pharaoh had done: he personally travelled to the First Cataract to receive homage from the Nubian chiefs. A relief recording the occasion shows Uni leaning on a staff while the chiefs of Medja, Irtje and Wawat bow to him.

Uni’s next task was to improve methods of communication and establish an unbroken water connection between the granite quarries and Memphis, to aid conveyance of granite blocks for the pharaoh’s tomb. The now-aged Uni was put in charge of digging five canals through parts of the Cataract that had proved especially difficult to navigate. The canals were successfully excavated ‘Indeed, I made a [saving] for the palace with all these five canals,’ wrote Uni. Three boats and four barges had then to be constructed to transport the ‘very large blocks for the Egyptian pyramid’ and so great was Egypt’s prestige that the timber for them was provided by the chiefs of Lower Nubia. Uni wrote: ‘The foreign chiefs of Irtje, Wawat, Yam and Medja cut the timber for them. I did it all in one year.’

With peaceful relations between Egypt and Nubia cemented and the waterway open, it was natural that Egypt should exploit the surrounding areas more fully, especially the ridges of Nubia’s eastern desert bearing rich veins of gold-bearing quartz. Journeys further south were no longer formidable and a closer interest in Yam (Upper Nubia) and Kush (Sudan) was also inevitable. The tombs of successive Egyptian noblemen clearly indicate the vigorous approach being introduced in Egypt’s foreign policy towards the end of the Old Kingdom. ‘Caravan- leaders’, travelling on foot accompanied by pack-donkeys, began to venture further south and explore hitherto unknown Harkhuf, a powerful nobleman and caravan-leader from Elephantine was the first recorded explorer in history. He made four journeys to Yam, the inhospitable country south of the Second Cataract, and also travelled westwards to unexplored regions on the ‘Elephant Road’, which may have been the route extending southwards from Aswan which is still used today for transporting herds from the Sudan.

His first journey took seven months. His second was more adventurous and he recorded that ‘never had any companion or caravan-leader who went forth to Yam done (it)’, and also that he brought back items ‘the likes of which no one has ever brought back before’. When Harkhuf reached Yam on his third expedition he found the country in an uproar. The chiefs were engaged in war with the settlements of Temehu (tribes related to the Libyans). Ancient Egypt had always acted on the defensive against incursions on the Nile valley from the western desert. Under the adventurous Harkhuf, however, a convoy followed the chief of Yam westwards and reduced him to subjection. On his return journey Harkhuf’s convoy, laden with tributes and products and furnished with a heavy escort, so impressed the tribal chiefs of the Nubian border that, instead of plundering the convoy, they offered Harkhuf guides and cattle. It was on his fourth journey that Harkhuf brought back to Egypt gold, ostrich feathers, lion and leopard skins, elephant tusks, cowrie shells, logs of ebony, incense, gum Arabic and a dancing pygmy.

The foot convoys into the unknown interior must have been interminable and exhausting. Accompanied by pack-donkeys the caravan-leaders were obliged to travel very slowly, following old river channels where wells and springs could be found. It took months to cover routes that camels can today cover in a few weeks. The expeditions were usually successful, but they were not without hazard and more than one Egyptian nobleman lost his life venturing into the interior.

The Ancient Egyptians were well acquainted with some of the languages and dialects of the tribes of Nubia, and the loose sovereignty they exercised over them was respected the Nubians had long been won over by admiration. A more aggressive policy towards them only becomes apparent towards the close of the Old Kingdom, and the complete conquest of Lower Nubia occurred in the Middle Kingdom.

Egypt commanded the routes to the south. Broken pottery vessels bearing the names of the pharaohs Pepi I's pharaoh, Merenre and Pepi II have been found as far south as Kerma in the Sudan. The gateway to the vast riches of interior Africa was open. Caravans could explore overland routes to distant Punt on the Somali Coast, an area rich in incense, ointments, and other exotica considered indispensable to the wealthy.

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Ancient Egyptian Gods

It was the capital of the Ancient Kingdom of Egypt and the nome I of Lower Egypt. So Upper Egypt is south of Lower Egypt because the upper Nile is south of the lower Nile.

Map Of The Nile Photos Of Egypt Images Of Ancient Egypt Pictures Of Egypt Photos Of Ancient Egypt Karnak Ancient Egypt Pictures Ancient Egypt Egypt

Upper Egypt extended from the Libyan Desert south past Abu Simbel.

Ancient egypt map lower and upper egypt. The narrowest part is only about three kilometers wide and the widest only twelve. Upper Egypt was located south almost under Lower and stretched to Syene. Lower Egypt was divided into nomes and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC.

Upper and Lower Egypt were named because they were on the upper and lower Nile respectively. Historical development locations of major constructions Egypt as we know it today and the always important River Nile that contributed to the growth of the ancient Egyptian civilization. Some of the most important sites of ancient Lower Egypt.

Ancient Egypt was split into two regions. Lower Egypt was the northern region closer to the Mediterranean Sea the Nile Delta. Formerly it was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt south and north.

This map of ancient Egypt covers Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt is the northern part of the country while Upper Egypt is the southern part. Historical Sites on the Ancient Egypt Map.

Rosetta where the Rosetta Stone was discovered. Ancient cities of Egypt map in the Nile Delta. Upper Egypt is nothing but a river valley.

The labelling of upper and lower seems counter-intuitive with Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north but in fact relates to the Nile which flows from the highlands of East Africa upstream to the Mediterranean Sea downstream. Map of Nubia in Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt lies in the northeast of Africa and forms and thrives in the lower reaches of the Nile.

Ancient Egypt map domain stretched from the delta of the Nile in the north to Elephantine Island where is the first cataract of the Nile in the south. Heres a map of ancient Egypt with all major cities. Lower Egypt is to the north and is that part where the Nile Delta drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

Lower Egypt was the northern-most section of ancient Egypt stretching from just south of modern-day Cairo to the Nile Delta at Alexandria. The labelling of upper and lower seems counter-intuitive. Lower Egypt is in the north because it is further from the source of the river Nile which flows into the Mediterranean.

In different periods its expansion reached the eastern desert the coastline of the Red Sea and the Sinai Peninsula. Alexandria Capital city of the Greco-Roman Period of ancient Egypt. Geographically the ancient Map of Egypt was divided between north and south known as Lower and Upper Egypt respectively and prior to the 1st Dynasty these two regions were politically separate.

Lower Egypt is the northernmost region of Egypt which consists of the fertile Nile Delta between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea from El Aiyat south of modern-day Cairo and Dahshur. The two kingdoms were eventually united by King Menes in 3000 BC. Then around 3100 BC the country was unified but the Egyptians continued to think of their country as consisting of these two major sections.

During the time of Moses and the Exodus the land of Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is to the south from the Libyan desert down to just past Abu Simbel Nubia. Lower Egypt was known to the Pharaohs as Ta-Mehu.

The main deities worshiped in Tanis were Amun his wife Mut and their son Jonsu. The land of ancient Egypt has four main divisions the first two being Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The Nile controlled everything for the Egyptians so this effected it.

It was located south of the Nile River Delta in the region between Lower and Upper Egypt. The Nile Delta was a triangular area of marshland about 150 miles from north to south from Memphis to the Mediterranean and about 150. The Upper and Lower rulers crowns were combined to create the double crown.

This map of ancient Egypt depicts Upper Egypt. Lower Egypt Lower Egypt is an extensive region of Egypt containing the Nile Delta Cairo Alexandria and the pyramid fields near CairoIn ancient times Lower Egypt. This part of the country was also divided into nomes or provinces.

These maps of ancient Egypt seek to highlight representative aspects of the country. Historically the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Today it contains two major channels.

Upper Egypt is a region of the Nile Valley in Egypt between Luxor and Aswan and the historical region of Lower Nubia characterised by a number of ancient settlements and temple towns that draw thousands of travellers every year.

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North East Africa 1500 BCE

For centuries, the land of Nubia has been coming increasingly under the influence of its great northern neighbour, Egypt.

When Egypt has been united and powerful, this influence has taken the form of outright conquest, at least in the north of the region. Egyptian colonies have been planted along the river Nile, and the outlying tribes, herding their cattle on the grasslands away from the river, have owed a loose allegience to the Egyptians, and traded with the Egyptian merchants in the towns.

On the other hand, when Egypt has been weak and divided, an independent state has flourished in Nubia, the kingdom of Kush. The Kushite ruling class, however, has become heavily Egyptianized in culture, religion and material civilization.

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What else is happening in the rest of the world.

Egypt history 1000BCE

After centuries of greatness, the civilization of Ancient Egypt has now entered a long period of decline.

Europe history 1000BCE

Major population movements in Europe have caused widespread upheaval, and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations have vanished

Africa history 1000BCE

Farming and cattle herding is spreading in western and central Africa

What else is happening in the rest of the world.

Iran history 500BCE

Iran, the centre of the great Persian empire

Egypt history 500BCE

Its ancient glories now in the past, Egypt is now just another province within the Persian empire

Africa history 500BCE

Bantu farmers from West Africa are beginning to spread out across the continent

What else is happening in the rest of the world.

Egypt history 30BCE

Egyptian independence has come to an end with the death of its famous queen, Cleopatra

Europe history 30BCE

The Roman empire now rules much of Europe

Africa history 30BCE

North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while in central Africa the Bantu expansion continues


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